Cluster: COVID-19

Cluster: COVID-19

A cluster of topics related to COVID-19. COVID-19 is the abbreviated name for coronavirus disease 2019, a respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus strain called SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 was first detected in Wuhan City, China and the outbreak was declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020 by the WHO.

COVID-19 is the abbreviated name for coronavirus disease 2019, a respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus strain called SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 was first detected in Wuhan City, China and the outbreak was declared a public health emergency of international concern on January 30, 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). On March 11, the WHO stated that the COVID-19 outbreak is characterized as a pandemic, meaning worldwide spread. Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as social distancing, quarantine, and school and workplace closure were put in place to slow the spread of the virus.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus, previously called 2019-nCoV, was described by researchers at the CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences by Peng Zhou and colleagues, led by Zheng-Li Shi.

COVID-19 treatments and vaccines

As of September 1, 2020 there are no FDA-approved medicines approved for treatment of prevention of COVID-19 and no FDA regulated vaccines for prevention of COVID-19.Treatments in development for COVID-19 focus on three primary areas: symptoms, anti-inflammation, and anti-viral growth. Certain treatments (below) have been granted FDA emergency use authorization (EUA) for the treatment of COVID-19. EUA authorizations may allow unapproved medical products or the use of approved medical products for unapproved uses in an emergency to diagnose, treat or prevent serious or life-threatening conditions or diseases. Potential drug and vaccine targets include proteins, enzymes, processes that allow virus entry into cells or virus replication and immune system regulatory pathways.

Spike protein or S-glycoprotein targets

The SARS-CoV-2 virus gains entry into human cells through the spike (S) protein, also called S-glycoprotein, which binds to the ACE2 receptor of human cells. Spike proteins cover coronaviruses, the virus group which includes SARS-CoV-2, MERS, and SARS viruses, giving them their crown or corona appearance. Both the S-protein (S-glycoprotein) and the ACE2 receptor have protein modification called N-linked glycosylation that is important for the ability of the virus to gain entry and also plays a role in the virus evading immune detection.

Immune system targets

Drugs that calm or modulate the immune system could potentially prevent complications such as acute respiratory disease syndrome and acute lung injury that occur when the immune system overreacts to an infection. Anticytokine therapies target the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines, referred to as a cytokine storm, that can lead to severe complications such as vascular hyperpermeability and multiorgan failure. An adequate inflammatory response must be maintained for the body to clear the pathogen.

Emergency Use Authorization (EUA)


Hydroxychloroquine sulfate and chloroquine phosphate products were granted EUA authorization by the FDA on March 28, 2020. Chloroquine is a quinoline derivative and a drug in widespread use since 1945 for the treatment of malaria, autoimmune diseases, and other medical conditions. Chloroquine is being investigated to treat COVID-19 in the form of chloroquine phosphate or hydroxychloroquine sulfate which are sometimes referred to as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine respectively. EUA for chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate was revoked on June 15, 2020 based on review of further scientific evidence.

COVID-19 convalescent plasma

Convalescent plasma to treat COVID-19 was issued EUA on August 23, 2020. At this time convalescent plasma had been used to treat 60,000 COVID-19 patients. Randomized clinical trials for COVID-19 convalescent plasma are ongoing. Convalescent plasma is donated similar to blood from individuals that have recovered from COVID-19 and contains antibodies against COVID-19.


Remdesivir , a Nuc inhibitor drug that inhibits viral replication, was granted emergency use authorization by the FDA on May 1, 2020. Gilead announced the submission of their New Drug Application (NDA) for remdesivir to treat COVID-19 under the product name Veklury in August 2020. An expansion of the EUA issued on August 28, 2020 allows Veklury to be provided to hospitalized patients irrespective of disease severity. Ongoing Phase 3 Clinical Trials for remdesivir are NIAID ACTT-1 Trial, Gilead GS-US-540-5773 Trial and Gilead GS-US-540-5774 Trial.


Commissioner Dr. Stephen Hahn stated that the FDA may consider EUA of a vaccine before trials are complete. Director of the Infectious Diseases Division of Vanderbilt University Dr. David Aronoff and others voiced concerns about not waiting until clinical trials are complete and reviewed.

COVID-19 potential treatments

The following COVID-19 treatments are experimental or in development unless otherwise specified. Treatments may have emergency use authorization from the FDA while still in an experimental stage. Some drugs designed and approved to treat other diseases are being tested for COVID-19.

COVID-19 potential treatments and interventions

Treatment / intervention
Other uses
Mechanism of action

Actemra (Tocilizumab)


Phase III COVACTA trial showed no difference in ventilator-free days compared with placebo


IL-6 inhibitor

AiRuiKa (camrelizumab)

Southeast Univ, China

Phase II

Treat pneumonia / sepsis, Hodgkin lymphoma and other cancers

Immunotherapy, PD-1 inhibitor

Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2



Antibody against CXCL10

Edesa Biotech, Light Chain Bioscience

Calm overactive immune response responsible for ARDS and ALI

Antibody against TLR4 (EB05)

Edesa Biotech, Light Chain Bioscience

Approval from Health Canada to begin a Phase 2/3 clinical study

Calm overactive immune response responsible for ARDS and ALI

APN01, recombinant ACE2

APEIRON Biologics

Clinical trials

Binds to virus preventing it from interacting with ACE2 receptor on lung cells

ASC09/oseltamivir, ritonavir/oseltamivir, oseltamivir

Ascletis Pharma, Gilead Sciences, AbbVie

Clinical trials

HIV, influenza

Protease inhibitor, sialidase inhibitor (oseltamivir)

ASC09/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, with or without umifenovir

Ascletis Pharma, AbbVie, Pharmstandard

Clinical trials

HIV, influenza (umifenovir)

Protease inhibitor, entry inhibitor (umifenovir)

Aviptadil (RLF-100), synthetic form of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)

NeuroRX, Releif Therapeutics Holdings

Phase II , FDA Fast Track designation


IL-6 inhibitor, blocks viral replication


Zhengzhou Granlen PharmaTech

Clinical trials, controlled clinical trial ChiCTR2000029853


Reverse transcriptase inhibitor, nucleoside drug

Baloxavir marboxil

Shionogi, FUJIFILM Toyama Chemical

Clinical trials

Influenza A and influenza B

Cap-dependent endonuclease (CEN) inhibitor

Bevacizumab (Avastin)

Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Bio-Thera Solutions, BeiGene

Clinical trial


VEGF inhibitor, for lung complications

Brilacidin (treatment or vaccine)

Innovation Pharmaceuticals


Eye infection, inflammatory bowel disease, oral mucositis

Defensin memetic, immune system modulation

Camostat mesylate

Stefan Pöhlmann, University Göttingen


Approved in Japan for chronic pancreatitis, post operative reflux esophagitis

Inhibits protease TMPRSS2 which is needed for viral entry into cell

Camrelizumab and thymosin

Incyte, Hengrui Medicine

Clinical trials

Camrelizumab is used for hepatocellular carcinoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. Thymosin is used for the prevention of HCC in chronic hepatitis B and C and therapeutic treatment of HCC.

Humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting PD-1 (Camrelizumab)



Phase III


IL-6 inhibitor

Chloroquine phosphate or hydroxychloroquine

Shanghai Zhongxi Pharmaceutical Factory, Shanghai Ziyuan Pharmaceutical, Wuhan Wuyao Pharmaceutical

Clinical trial, FDA EUA revoked


Endosomal acidification fusion inhibitor


Montreal Health Institute

Phase III


Tubulin disruption

Convalescent plasma

Donald Arnold (McMaster University), Canadian Blood Services, Héma-Québec, also Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences

Clinical trials China, CONCOR-1 (Canada), FDA EUA

Plasma from recovered COVID-19 patients contains antibodies against SARS-CoV-2

Convalescent sera

Arturo Casadevall, Johns Hopkins University

Antibodies from serum of individual recovered from COVID-19 provide prevention or treatment

COVID-HIG, human immune globulin, antibody

Emergent BioSolutions, BARDA

Antibodies from recovered individuals

D-NAC, Dendrimer N-Acetyl Cysteine

Ashvattha Therapeutics, Johns Hopkins University

Clinical trials

Cytokine Storm Syndrome, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Convert reactive M1-like macrophages in cytokine storm syndrome into less reactive M2-like macrophages.

Danoprevir, ritonavir

Ascletis Pharma, Abbvie

Clinical trials, risk of bradycardia

Hepatitis C, HIV (ritonavir)

Hepatitis C protease inhibitor (Ganovo)


Johnson & Johnson

Clinical trial


Darunavir is an HIV-1 protease inhibitor, Cobicist is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A enzyme


Sihuan Pharmaceutical

Apilli Therapeutics

Clinical trial, Phase 2 (US, Canada)

Influenza, Ebola

Viral RNA polymerase inhibitor, guanine analog

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COVID-19 vaccines

Conditional approvals

Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology (Russia)

The Russian Ministry of Health issued a registration certificate on August 11, 2020 for a COVID-19 vaccine developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology in Moscow, that had been tested in 76 people. The vaccine was dubbed Sputnik V. The certificate allows the vaccine to be given to a small number of citizens from vulnerable groups such as medical staff and the elderly. The certificate is similar to the FDA granting emergency use authorization. It is stipulated in the certificate that the vaccine cannot be widely used until January 1, 2021. It is expected that at this time larger clinical trials will have been completed. The certification of the vaccine received criticism for being premature and potentially exposing those who receive the vaccine to unnecessary risk. The vaccine is manufactured by Binnopharm in Zelenograd. The vaccine uses an adenovirus carrier engineered to carry the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2.

Results from small-scale Phase 1/2 clinical trial published in The Lancet show that neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were generated in dozens of subjects with mostly mild side effects. A T cell response was reported within 28 days. A large-scale Phase 3 trial received approval on August 26 which is expected to enroll 40,000 volunteers.

China National Biotec Group Company (CNBG)

In China an experimental COVID-19 vaccine was approved for use in individuals working in high risk professions on July 22, 2020. The vaccine was developed by Sinopharm’s China National Biotec Group Company (CNBG). At the time the vaccine had completed Phase 3 clinical trials in UAE, Peru, Morocco and Argentina.

Beijing Institute of Biotechnology/ CanSino Biologics

The vaccine called Ad5-nCoV that was developed by the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology and the company CanSino Biologics was approved by the Chinese government for use for military personnel on June 25, 2020. The vaccine is being tested in clinical trials in China and in Canada in a collaboration between CanSino Biolgics and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). In the vaccine development, a proprietary HEK293 cell line of the NRC and part of the work of Dr. Frank Graham (McMaster University, Canada).

Vaccines in phase 3 clinical trials

The following groups have COVID-19 vaccines in Phase 3 clinical trials (as of August 31, 2020):

Beijing Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm

  • University of Oxford/AstraZeneca
  • Sinovac
  • Gamaleya Research Institute
  • Wuhan Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm
  • BioNTech/Fosun Pharma/Pfizer
  • Moderna/NIAID
  • CureVac

COVID-19 vaccines in development

Vaccine type
Team members

AbCellera Biologics


DARPA, Eli Lilly

Clinical trials, starting June 2020

AJ Vaccines

Protein subunit; S protein



Non-replicating viral vector; adenovirus-based NasoVAX expressing spike protein


Arcturus Therapeutics/Duke-NUS





Pre-clinical; Animal trials begin in April 2020

BioNTech, Pfizer

mRNA vaccine

Fosun Pharma

BioNTech/Fosun Pharma


Company is in "advanced" discussions with Pfizer

Pre-clinical; Phase 1 to start late April 2020

CanSino Biologics

Adenovirus Type 5 vector

Phase I

CanSino Biologics/Beijing Institute of Technology

Non-replicating viral vector; Adenovirus Type 5 vector (Ad5-nCoV); spike protein

National Research Council of Canada (NRC)


Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention/Tongji University/Stemirna Therapeutics



Clover Biopharmaceuticals

Spike protein vaccine plus adjuvants

Chengdu Hi-Tech Park, Chengdu Center for Public Health, GlaxoSmithKline


Codagenix/Serum Institute of India

Deoptimized live attenuated


Animal data in summer 2020



Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness (CEPI; European Commission

Pre-clinical; start Phase 1 in June 2020

Diadem Biotherapeutics

Inhalable exosome antigen/virus like particle

Distributed Bio

Centivax universal vaccine technology

ExpreS2ion Biotechnologies

Protein subunit; Drosophila S2 insect cell expression system VLPs


Flow Pharma

Protein subunit, peptide


Fudan University/Shanghai Jiao Tong University/RNA Cure Biopharma

RNA; LNP-encapsulated mRNA cocktail encoding RBD


Fudan University/Shanghai Jiao Tong University/RNACure Biopharma

RNA; LNP-encapsulated mRNA cocktail encoding VLP


GeneCure Biotechnologies


Phase I

GeneOne Life Science/Houston Methodist




Protein subunit; li-Key peptide



Non-replicating viral vector; MVA encoded VLP


German Center for Infection Research (DZIF)

Live attenuated virus, measles virus



Adenovirus vector, with SARS-CoV-2 sequence

Animal testing

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Vaccine manufacturing

Operation Warp Speed (OWS) is a partnership between the US Department of Health and Human Services, which includes the CDC, FDA and NIH, and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) and the Department of Defense (DoD). The goal of OWS is to produce and deliver 300 million doses of safe and effective vaccines. Initial doses aim to be available by January 2021 and OWS has a broader strategy to accelerate development, manufacturing and distribution of COVID-19 countermeasures.

OWS funded Janssen, Moderna and AstraZeneca, Novavax, Pfizer, Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline supporting COVID-19 vaccine development and large-scale manufacturing. OWS funded Regeneron supporting their COVID-19 anti-viral antibody treatment. Task orders with Emergent BioSolutions and Texas A&M University and FUJIFILM are aimed to advance US manufacturing capabilities. Grand River Aseptic Manufacturing (GRAM) in Michigan, USA received a contract with OWS for fill and finish manufacturing of critical vaccines and therapeutics.

Exothera is a contract development and manufacturing organization (CDMO), launched by Univercells in March 2020 plans to work on vaccines for COVID-19 through supporting vaccine innovators and providing manufacturing services.

In Canada vaccine production may take place at the Human Health Therapeutics Research Centre in Montreal. The Canadian government has signed deals with Moderna, Pfizer/BioNTech, Novavax and Janssen to reserve millions of doses of COVID-19 vaccine.

Vaccine delivery and storage technology

Microneedle vaccine patch

Vaxess Technologies is developing a COVID-19 vaccine that can be delivered with their drug patch delivery system (MIMIX) allowing self-administration of vaccines or therapeutics without the need for refrigerated storage or syringes. The system uses silk protein fibroin to stabilize and allow the vaccine to be stored and transported at room temperature. The vaccine and MIMIX system combination is a skin patch that can be administered at home. Silk-based tips are embedded into the skin. Over a period of weeks the fibroin protein controls the rate that the vaccine is released and diffuses into the body.

Vernardi, a biotech startup has VaxiPatch technology under development in a partnership with BARDA. VaxiPatch was invented by Daniel R. Henderson, CEO of Vernardi and will undergo preclinical testing at University of California, Davis.

BARDA also funded research at University of Connecticut under Assistant Professor Thanh Duc Nguyen and Associate Professor Steve Szczepanek to develop their vaccine microneedle patch for COVID-19.

Oral delivery

Esperovax is partnered with BARDA for development of their oral cellular delivery technology called Egress RDTM mRMA which can allow for lower cost, self-administration of vaccines.

COVID-19 diagnostics and screening

COVID-19 diagnostic testing is performed on sputum, nose, and throat swabs. As of early March 2020, governments have restricted COVID-19 testing to central health agencies or a few accredited laboratories for a real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR)-based protocol selected by the WHO. Reverse transcription means a reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA template to cDNA before PCR amplification. Real-time PCR is sometimes called quantitative PCR (qPCR or qRT-PCR). The COVID-19 real-time RT-PCR test detects the presence of the E gene of SARS-CoV-2, coding for the envelope surrounding the viral shell and the gene for the enzyme RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Once samples are received in a laboratory, it takes 24-48 hours for results. The tests are showing to be accurate by confirmation with whole genome sequencing. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has an RT-PCR assay that includes primers for the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein in the virus shell and for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene. In the UK, COVID-19 testing is done by accredited laboratories. In the US COVID-19 testing was initially done exclusively by the CDC which later began sending out RT-PCR test kits to state health laboratories. Some clinical tests on sale in the US have been made available under CLIA waivers, which regulate the facility where the tests are conducted, rather than the tests themselves. The FDA announced on February 29 that CLIA-certified labs do not need to obtain emergency use authorisation (EUA).

Besides real-time RT-PCR, other diagnostic tests being developed use CRISPR- or antibody-based methods or serological tests such as ELISA and lateral flow immunoassay. Antibodies can be used as probes to detect virus. For serological tests, antibodies produced by a person exposed to the virus are detected in blood samples. Antibodies are still found in patients after they recover from the illness.

The FDA issued a policy March 16, 2020 to accelerate the availability of COVID-19 diagnostic tests which includes the following: Each state takes responsibility for tests developed and used by their laboratories and labs developing tests engage directly with state authorities; the FDA does not intend to object to the distribution of tests after validation and during preparation of an EUA request; Recommendations are provided for developers of serological tests which identify antibodies or proteins in the blood in response to infection.

Many diagnostic or screening methods are in development and still need verification. The aim is to develop diagnostic tests that could potentially be deployed more widely in hospitals and clinics and with quicker turn-around times. The purpose of diagnostics and screening is not only for patient isolation but also for overall monitoring of the spread of COVID-19. The Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) is a global non-profit organization concerned with the development and delivery of diagnostics for diseases that affect poor populations. FIND is collaborating with the WHO and a third-party, referral laboratory to conduct an independent evaluations of SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic tests in order to verify manufacturer’s claims, and establish diagnostic accuracy. Results will be shared with the global health community.

As of April, 2020, the majority of COVID-19 nucleic acid tests use real-time RT-PCR that targets ORF1b, ORF8, nucleocapsid (N), spike (S) protein, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) or envelope (E) genes of SARS-CoV-2. Samples tested are usually swabs from the upper respiratory system but it is possible to use serum, stool, ocular secretions or saliva.

Viral load and disease severity

In real time PCR, cycle threshold (Ct) is the number of cycles for the fluorescent signal to exceed background level. Ct levels are inversely proportional to the amount of target nucleic acid, which is the amount of SARS-CoV-2 virus present, also known as viral load. Higher viral load and lower Ct has been correlated with disease severity, lung lesions with margins not easily differentiated and changes in follow-up CT (computed tomography) in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients with severe COVID-19 have been reported to have a higher viral load and longer virus-shedding period compare with mild disease.Another research study from China showed no correlation between viral load and disease severity. Viral loads in nasal swabs between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals were not significantly different in an Italian study. In addition to real-time RT-PCR, digital PCR (digital RT-PCR) has been applied to studies on viral load to study disease progression.

COVID-19 diagnostics and screening

Key components
Clinical use
Certificatiton or approval

A Real Time RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 moving to sequencing at >10,000 per week


Saliva/sputum based at home or clinical kit

UK and Europe

FDA EUA, collection kit CE

Antibody-based probe, SARS antibody

National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) Taiwan

COVID-19 antigen

SARS antibody test strip recognizes COVID-19


CDC 2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

identification of 2019-nCoV RNA

in vitro diagnostic test, the product contains oligonucleotide primers and dual-labeled hydrolysis probes (TaqMan®)


Computerized tomography (CT)

Sensitivity of CT for COVID-19 infection was 98% compared to RT-PCR sensitivity of 71%


Laboratory Corporation of America

detection of nucleic acid from SARS-CoV-2


CRISPR, GeneXpert

Cepheid, Sherlock Biosciences


Mammoth Biosciences

N gene, E gene

RNA extraction, isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), primers, Cas12a, lateral flow strip signal


Caspr Biotech

Orf1ab, Orf1b, RdRp

Cas12a, RT-RPA, plate reader or lateral flow strip


Sherlock Biosciences

S gene, Orf1ab gene

RNA extraction, isothermal amplification (RT-RPA), Cas13, lateral flow strip signal

Diagnostic masks

University of Leicester

Virus levels in exhaled air

Adapted with 3D printed strips that trap exhaled air and measure the amount of virus

Used for tuberculosis

Lyra SARS-CoV-2 Assay

Quidel Corp.

detection of nucleic acid from SARS-CoV-2

Used with molecular testing infrastructure such as the Applied Biosystems® 7500 Fast DX instruments


Metagenomics, Explify Respiratory, sequencing

IDbyDNA, ARUP Laboratories

Respiratory pathogens

Specimens mailed to approved laboratories

Microfluidic chip, PCR, POC

Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Shenzhen Shineway

Microfluidic PCR, silicon-based microheater, portable PCR analyser

International CE certification (EU standard) and qualified for export to EU and Hong Kong

New York SARS-CoV-2 Real-time Reverse Transcriptase (RT)-PCR Diagnostic Panel

Wadsworth Center, NYSDOH

detection of nucleic acid from SARS-CoV-2

Clinical diagnostic molecular virology testing


OZO Diamond SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG Duo Rapid Test kit


N Protein + S1 (RDB) Protein

One-step LFIA based IgM/IgG antibody rapid test kit. IgG Accuracy - 98.80%, IgM Accuracy - 99%

CE-IVD Certified, EU-Approved (CIBG, Ministry of Health, Welfare & Sport, Netherlands)

OZO Gold SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG Duo Rapid Test kit


N Protein

One-step LFIA based IgM/IgG antibody rapid test kit. IgG accuracy = 98%, IgM accuracy = 94%

CE-IVD Certified, EU-Approved (CIBG, Ministry of Health, Welfare & Sport, Netherlands)

OZO RT-PCR Combo 1


ORF 1ab and N gene

Detects the specfic nucleic acids from the SARS-CoV-2 Cirus. Sensitivity = 94.5% (CI:95%), Specificity = 98.96% (CI:95%)


OZO RT-PCR Combo 2


ORF 1ab and N gene

Coronavirus RNA detection by one-step RT-PCR. Sensitivity = 100%, Specificity = 100%


Panther Fusion SARS-CoV-2

Hologic, Inc.

identification of the virus causing COVID-19



Amoy Diagnostics

Emergency approval by China’s National Medical Products Administration (NMPA)

PCR, Biochip

Randox Laboratories, Bosch

Panel of 6 coronaviruses, multiplex PCR

Quest SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR

Quest Diagnostics Infectious Disease, Inc.

detection of COVID-19

qualitative multi-target molecular diagnostics


RT-Digital PCR (COVID-19 RT-Digital PCR Detection kit)

Gnomegen, Todos Medical (distribution)



Christian Drosten, Charité University Hospital, Berlin, WHO

E gene, RdRp gene

RNA extraction, reverse transcription RT-PCR


Hong Kong University

Orf1b gene, N gene

RNA extraction, reverse transcription RT-PCR

Reference test sent to WHO and other labs.

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For more information on diagnostics and screening, see COVID-19 testing.

Materials for diagnostics, treatments and vaccines

Integrated DNA Technologies (IDT) is manufacturing virus detection panels and positive and negative controls for COVID-19 treatment and vaccine development.

COVID-19 research

COVID-19 sequencing and analysis

Sequencing the genetic code of SARS-CoV-2 from different patient samples is used to understand how the virus changes over time. For example, how it moved from a disease affecting animals to a human disease and how it became infectious in humans. Besides SARS-CoV-2, sequencing of related viral genomes from different contexts such as wild animal populations would be part of this line of research. Such research can prevent future outbreaks. By understanding the conditions that enabled SARS-CoV-2 to appear, a future virus may be prevented from following similar path.

  • Arbor Biosciences offering free kits for sequencing virus samples
  • GenapSys provides affordable next-generation sequencing machines
  • Illumina and IDbyDNA collaborated to provide next-generation sequencing workflows focused in microbiology and infectious disease
  • NVIDIA offers NVIDIA Parabricks Genomics Analysis Toolkit which provides GPU-accelerated genomic analysis
  • MGI Tech Co., Ltd. provides DNBSEQ-T7, a sequencing platform that can generate 1-6Tb of high quality data per day

Distributed computing projects

Folding@home launched a program in March 2020 to assist researchers around the world who are working on finding a cure and learning more about the COVID-19 outbreak. The initial wave of projects have been used to simulate potentially druggable protein targets from SARS-CoV-2 virus, and the related SARS-CoV virus, of which there is much more data available.

Other distributed computing projects include:

  • Rosetta@Home
  • Neocortix Cloud Services provides ARM support to Coronavirus distributed computing applications
  • SETI@home

Immune response to COVID-19

Herd immunity

Herd immunity threshold estimates of around 10-20% were calculated when variation in individual susceptibility or exposure were taken into account for their mathematical modelling. Individual variation means that the presence of individuals that are more susceptible or more exposed are infected and removed from the susceptible subpopulation earlier and intensifies the deceleration in incidence. If the population were homogeneous or were vaccinated randomly, HIT would be estimated to be around 65-80%.

COVID-19 Biomarkers

  • C-reactive protein (CRP)
  • Patients with severe COVID-19 show lymphopenia (lymphocytopenia) with drastically reduced numbers of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells.
  • Gatehouse Bio

Data mining

Virtual drug screening

Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has virtual screening software which it used to evaluate two million drug compounds agianst SARS-CoV-2. SwRI is partnered with Texas Biomedical Research Institute and their Rhodium software can scan 250,000 drug compounds using machine learning techniques.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) used its supercomputer to identify 77 small-molecule compounds as potential SARS-CoV-2 drugs which are likely to bind the novel coronavirus main spike protein which could prevent it from infecting cells.

Insilico Medicine is using an AI-based drug discovery pipeline to identify drug molecules that could target 3C-like protease. 3C-like protease is a SARS-CoV-2 protein that is a target for potential drugs because it has a central role in the viral replication cycle. A portion will be tested by Insilico Medicine and the remainder of the potentially useful structures will be published on the company website and available to the public (

Materials and products related to COVID-19 prevention

According to available evidence, the SARS-CoV-2 virus is transmitted between people through close contact and droplets produced by sneezing and coughing. The SARS-CoV-2 virus was initially reported to not be transmitted by airborne transmission, but hundreds of scientists urged organizations such as the WHO to address airborne transmission in an open letter outlining emerging evidence, which culminated in a National Academies workshop on airborne transmission of COVID-19. Preventative measures include: hand hygiene with alcohol-based sanitizers or soap and water; avoiding touching eyes, nose and mouth; coughing or sneezing into elbow or tissue; wearing a medical mask if you have symptoms and hand hygiene after disposing of mask; maintaining social distance of 1 m from individuals with respiratory symptoms. In indoor environments, ventilation, filtration and air disinfection have been suggested to decrease potential airborne transmission.

Protective mask recommendations

The WHO has guidelines that recommend health care workers cover their mouth and nose with surgical masks and the CDC put out instructions for health care workers to wear N95 masks (N95 respirators). N95 masks are thicker and fit more snugly around the mouth and nose, blocking smaller particles than surgical masks. Both types of masks help prevent the spread of droplets from a cough or sneeze from reaching the mask-wearer’s mouth or nose. During the SARS coronavirus outbreak a study found that any type of mask or respirator reduced the risk of infections in health care workers by 85 percent. The CDC recommends that health care workers wear a respirator, also called an N95 mask, when around potential COVID-19 patients, which filters out more particles than a surgical mask. The CDC has a list of N95 masks approved by the National Institute for Occupations Safety and Health (NIOSH).

Infected patients who wear surgical masks are less likely to spread infection to others. The CDC instructed hospitals to request a patient wear a surgical mask if they have a fever or respiratory illness, recently traveled to Wuhan or have come in contact with someone who traveled there.

The purchasing of protective face masks by the public is feared to cause a shortage for health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to healthcare workers, a shortage of protective masks would slow scientific research on treatments and vaccines to SARS-CoV-2 since personnel need to be protected from the pathogens that they work with in the lab. For healthy asymptomatic individuals, who are not healthcare workers or caring for patients at home, wearing of a face mask is not recommended by the WHO. The WHO stated on February 27, 2020, “The capacity to expand PPE production is limited, and the current demand for respirators and masks cannot be met, especially if the widespread, inappropriate use of PPE continues”, referring to surges in global demand driven by misinformation, panic buying and stockpiling.

The CDC initially recommended that the general public not wear face masks unless they are sick or caring for a person who is sick. However, on April 3, 2020, the CDC recommended that the general public voluntarily wear a facial covering when out in a public space where social distancing guidelines are difficult to maintain. The CDC published guides for how to make a variety of face masks using common materials. 2013 Research on influenza transmission suggests that homemade facial coverings and masks made from household items like 100% cotton t-shirts, scarves, and tea towels can block some aerosolized bacteria and viruses, but they are not as effective as commercially available surgical masks. The paper states that "an improvised mask should be viewed as the last possible alternative if a supply of commercial face masks is not available, irrespective of the disease against which it may be required for protection."

In the United States a nation-wide, federal-level mask order is not possible due to the sovereignty of U.S. states. Accordingly, U.S. states specify their own local policies and regulations around wearing masks. Some states require that masks be worn in certain public settings (such as inside businesses) while others have enacted no such requirements.

For more information, see Surgical mask.

Manufacturers of face masks, surgical masks, and respirators (including N95)

Other personal protective equipment

For medical staff, in addition to masks, personal protective equipment (PPE) includes faceshields, gowns, bouffant caps and gloves. For more information go to Personal protective equipment.

Hand sanitizer

Hand washing is recommended over the use of hand sanitizer, but alcohol-based hand sanitizers provide some benefit against the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and are recommended for use when hand washing is not available. Both hand washing and alcohol-based hand sanitizers target viral envelopes. The increased purchasing of hand sanitizer during the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a shortage of alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Numerous distilleries in Canada and US distilleries have begun manufacturing hand sanitizer.

Chemical disinfection

An analysis of 22 studies concluded that human coronaviruses such as SARS, MERS and endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV) can persist on surfaces like metal, glass or plastic for up to 9 days. The study found that the viruses can be inactivated within 1 minute by surface disinfection procedures with 64-71% ethanol, 0.5% hydrogen peroxice or 0.1% sodium hypchlorite. Biocidal agents such as 0.05-0.2% benzalkonium chloride or 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate were found to be less effective.

The botanical oil Citriodiol and other compounds that contain p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) show antiviral properties against SARS-CoV-2.

Vaporized hydrogen peroxide

VHP is commonly used to decontaminate rooms, but it has been shown to be effective in sterilizing N95 masks without degradation of their performance. The systems usually use about 1000 ppm VHP, so some amount of evaporation is needed to allow the levels to drop below the NIOSH recommended level of 1ppm.

Environmental monitoring

Chai Bio will release a test that can be used with swabbing of areas like door handles and hard surfaces in the environment for SARS-CoV-2 testing. The test is intended for detection of the novel coronavirus in schools, senior centers, first responders, hackerspaces and community labs, public health departments and individuals. The Foundation is working with Chai to make machines and test kits available in communities and makerspaces through board donations and has interest in promoting the technology around the world.

Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used to test for SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in aeorsols collected on gelatin filters in patient and medical staff areas at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuchang Fangcang Field Hospital and public areas in Wuhan.

UV sanitizing devices

UV sanitizers use ultraviolet C (UVC) light which kills bacteria and viruses.

CleanSlate UV is a Toronto-based company that produces devices that sanitize items with UV light. Their UV light devices are used in hospitals to for staff to sanitize stethoscopes, badges and phones.

PhoneSoap is a Utah-based company that produces UV devices for cleaning and charging items such as phones, smart watches, keys, and tablets.

Xenex Disinfection Services is a company that provides ultraviolet disinfectant robots. Their technologies kill bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms in hospital rooms, emergency departments, and ambulances. They have provided robot systems to Japan, Thailand, Singapore, South Korea, Italy, and Houston.

Far-UVC light

Conventional UVC light sources are a hazard to humans due to being carcinogenic and cataractognic. Far-UVC light generated by filtered excimer lamps emitting in the range of 207-222 nm wavelength inactivates bacteria and viruses without harming exposed mammalian skin. Far-UVC has strong absorbance in biological materials and cannot penetrate the outer layer of human skin nor the outer tear layer on the outer surface of the eye. Far-UVC can traverse and inactivate bacteria and viruses because they are typically at dimensions of microns or smaller. UVC was shown to inactivate airborne aerosolized H1N1 influenza viruses by researchers at Columbia University in 2018. The authors propose the use of very low dose-rate far-UVC overhead light in indoor public locations as a tool to reduce the spreading of airborne-mediated microbial diseases.

Robots and drones

UVD Robots developed by the Denmark-based company UVD Robots ApS are UV disinfecting robots that have been deployed in hospitals in China to help reduce the spread of the novel coronavirus. UV-C light is emitted to kill viruses and bacteria.

XAG is an agricultural technology company whose agricultural robots and drones have been adapted for testing scenarios to spray disinfectant to reduce the spread of COVID-19 and have been deployed in Guangzhou. High concentrated disinfectants can be sprayed from drone nozzles or robot jet sprayers and diluted with moisture in the air and potential targets include hospitals and schools.

Textiles and fabrics

Sonovia is a textile company that developed an anti-pathogen fabric that was sent to labs in China to be tested for use as a preventative measure against spread of COVID-19.

Antimicrobial coating

There are a number of antimicrobial coatings that are effective against certain viruses but have not yet been tested against SARS-CoV-2.

Multilevel Antimicrobial Polymer (MAP-1) developed at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) with Chiaphua Industries kills viruses, bacteria and spores. MAP-1 can be made into hand sanitizers, paints, coatings, and incorporated into air and water filters, clothing and surgical masks.

BioCote - antimicrobial coating company.

NanoSeptic self-cleaning surfaces

Air filtration

GAC and Geely Automobile Holdings are upgrading their in-vehicle air filtration systems to match effectiveness of an N95 mask to protect passengers form viral outbreaks.

For information about fraudulent COVID-19 products, see Food and Drug Administration.

Critical care equipment

Airway management

Equipment used for airway management includes endotracheal tubes, introducers and stylets.


For more information, see Medical ventilator.

Oxygen Concentration

For more information, see Oxygen concentrator.

Other Respiratory Treatments

For more information, see Respiratory care.

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

Critical COVID-19 cases may also show multiorgan and systemic manifestations such as sepsis, septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction (MOD). In addition to respiratory support extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be necessary. ECMO is a machine similar to a heart-lung by-pass machine used in open-heart surgery. The device pumps and oxygenates the patient’s blood outside the body so that the heart and lungs can rest.

Infectious disease tracking

BlueDot is an AI company that tracks, contextualizes and anticipates infectious disease risks. BlueDot’s system identified an article in Chinese on Dec. 31, 2019, about “pneumonia of unknown cause” and issued an alert to its clients almost one week before the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization issued their public alerts. BlueDot’s analysis of the likely destinations for spread of 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) in the Journal of Travel Medicine.

A GitHub repository and web-based dashboard to visualize and track SARS-CoV-2 reported cases has been made available by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University. The primary source for the dashboard is DXY, an online resource run by members of the medical community in China.

HealthMap has released an interface for SARS-CoV-2.

Zoe, a health science company headquartered in London, originally started as a nutrition science company, but it launched a COVID-19 symptom tracker and online dashboard for the United Kingdom. The company says it has gathered data from over 1 million volunteer contributors.

Metabiota is an epidemic tracker for providing risk analysis for the impact of epidemics on animal and human health.

A shared electronic list of SARS-CoV-2 cases is available through crowdsourcing and automated information retrieval.

American Enterprise Institute offers live tracking and updates of state level strategies for 2019-nCov through their @COVID2019action Twitter, and they offer news and analysis on the measures states and individuals can or are taking to combat infection and spread.

The COVID Tracking Project is a nonprofit online organization focused on tracking and collection data on SARS-CoV-2 and any testing and results of testing in the United States and related territories. They offer raw data spreedsheets and an API through their site.

GISAID is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the collection of influenza related data and genome sequencing who are working to study and track the sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 and related clinical and epidemiological data.

Nextstrain is working to collect and incorporate all available data on SARS-CoV-2 genomes and provide analysis and situation reports. They are also working to build a database on the genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 with data provided from GISAID.

Worldometer offers a live tracker for SARS-CoV-2 related data, including case reports, death rates, countries, incubation, age, symptoms and news.

Tracking by US state and county

Clinical trials for COVID-19

Study type
Responsible party
Start date
End date
Enrollment (estimate)

Other: Placebo

Drug: Remdesivir



National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

February 21, 2020

April 1, 2023 (estimated)

Drug: Remdesivir

Drug: Remdesivir placebo



Bin Cao, China-Japan Friendship Hospital

February 12, 2020

April 27, 2020 (estimated)

Phase 3


Drug: Remdesivir

Drug: Remdesivir placebot



Bin Cao, China-Japan Friendship Hospital

February 6, 2020

May 1, 2020 (estimated)

Phase 3


Biological: MSCs-derived exosomes



Ruijin Hospital

February 15, 2020

July 31, 2020 (estimated)

Drug: Bevacizumab Injection



Qilu Hospital of Shandong University

February 2020

May 2020 (estimated)

Drug: Sildenafil citrate tablets



Qin Ning, Tongji Hospital

February 1, 2020

November 9, 2020 (estimate)

Phase 3


Drug: Abidol hydrochloride

Drug: Oseltamivir

Drug: Lopinavir/ritonavir



Qin Ning, Tongji Hospital

February 1, 2020

July 1, 2020 (estimated)

Phase 4


Drug: Abidol hydrochloride

Drug: Abidol Hydrochloride combined with Interferon atomization



Qin Ning, Tongji Hospital

February 1, 2020

July 1, 2020 (estimated)

Phase 4


Drug: ASC09F+Oseltamivir

Drug: Ritonavir+Oseltamivir

Drug: Oseltamivir



Qin Ning, Tongji Hospital

February 1, 2020

July 1, 2020 (estimated)

Phase 3


Other: standard operating procedures


Treatment / management

Pierachille Santus, MD, PhD, University of Milan

March 19, 2020

December 31, 2020 (estimate)

Drug: Bevacizumab



Qilu Hospital of Shandong University

March 12, 2020

May 31, 2020 (estimate)

Not applicable


Other: Questionnaire with precaution information

Other: Experimental: Questionnaire without precaution information


Health services research / management

OUYANG Jian, Guangzhou Blood Center

March 12, 2020

April 9, 2020 (estimate)

Drug: Chloroquine

Drug: Placebo



University of Oxford

May 2020

May 2022 (estimate)

Other: prospective analysis



Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale, France

February 7, 2020

August 7, 2023 (estimated)

Subjects recruited from the hospitals that are in partnership with clinical research collaboration of National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases


Management: To clarify the clinical characteristics, risk factors and long-term prognosis of children with 2019-nCoV infection in China

Kunling Shen, Beijing Children's Hospital

February 15, 2020

December 31, 2020 (estimated)

Not applicable


Analysis of COVID-19 patient characteristics


Management: To determine the effectiveness of ACE2 inhibitors for treating COVID-19

Dongying Zhang, Chongqing Medical University

January 25, 2020

April 30, 2020 (estimated)

Other: compare the characteristics of disease progression, clinical features, disease severity and therapeutic effect of different types of COVID-19


Management: to understand the disease progression, clinical characteristics, disease severity and treatment effects related to COVID-19

Xiuling Shang, Fujian Provincial Hospital

January 1, 2020

July 31, 2020 (estimated)

Drug: Arbidol

Other: basic treatment



Jieming QU, Ruijin Hospital

February 7, 2020

December 30, 2020 (estimate)

Phase 4


Drug: TCM prescriptions



Jiangsu Famous Medical Technology Co., Ltd.

March 2, 2020

May 2020 (estimate)

Not applicable


Drug: Lopinavir/ritonavir

Drug: Hydroxychloroquine sulfate



Sung-Han Kim, Asan Medical Center

March 11, 2020

May 2020 (estimate)

Phase 2


Analysis of data associated with critically ill COVID-19 patients


Management: To describe the characteristics, organ dysfunction and support and 2 week outcomes of critically ill patients with nCov infection

Lowell Ling, Chinese University of Hong Kong

February 14, 2020

February 25, 2020

Not applicable


Other: CT score



Ruilan Wang, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine

January 31, 2020

February 18, 2020

Retrospective study


Other: analysis of COVID-19 in multiple organ systems from isolated COVID-19 patients



Liang Peng, Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University

January 20, 2020

February 28, 2021

Diagnostic Test: New QIAstat-Dx fully automatic multiple PCR detection platform



Wen-hong Zhang, Huashan Hospital

March 14, 2020

December 1, 2020 (estimate)

Diagnostic Test: Recombinase aided amplification (RAA) assay



Yao Xie, Beijing Ditan Hospital

January 1, 2020

December 31, 2020 (estimated)

Page 1 of 4

Medical journals and COVID-19 resource centers

Services related to COVID-19

Contact tracing

Drive-through COVID-19 testing

Drive-through clinics in Goyang South Korea allow people to stay in their cars as sample are taken from their noses and throats from staff in protective clothing. Samples are tested on site and the user receives a phone call or text message of their result and placed in isolation. The UK is also opening COVID-19 drive-throughs.

Verily, a subsidiary of Alphabet, the parent company of Google, is developing plans for a website for Americans to find screening tests for COVID-19 and direct them to drive through clinics.

Mobile apps related to COVID-19

Corona 100m is an app in South Korea that alerts users if they are within 100m of a location the government marked as a high-risk area for COVID-19. The app uses public government data and can see the date a patient was confirmed with the disease, demographic data and their location history.

The Japanese medical advice company Agree, offers a free app for limited time that allows users in Japan to consult with doctors about their symptoms, which prevents overtaxing medical centers.

Apple is evaluating coronavirus apps to prevent the spread of misinformation and had reportedly rejected apps that are not from recognized institutions like governments or hospitals.

GYANT is an AI-enabled Healthcare chatting application for diagnosis. In March 2020, Gyant launched a free COVID-19 Emergency Response Assistant. It uses AI chat to check for COVID-19 symptoms and pertinent risk factors, then navigates patients to appropriate health system resources and care settings.

On March 13th, 2020, K Health (an AI-powered health app) began offering free virtual primary care for COVID-19, including unlimited access to U.S. doctors free for 14 days.

Curai Health, Carbon Health, and Babylon Health are digital health care providers that offer Covid-19 assessments via mobile or desktop.

No-contact food delivery

Many food delivery companies are adding "no contact" delivery as an optional component of their service. If a customer elects for no contact or "contactless" delivery, there is no direct contact between the customer who ordered the food and the driver who is delivering it.


March 16, 2020

Moderna Therapeutics vaccine trial starts

November 19, 2019

China’s first confirmed Covid-19 case traced back to November 17



Helen Branswell

Senior Writer, Infectious Disease

Jon Cohen

Staff writer with Science Magazine

Kai Kupferschmidt

Contributing correspondent for Science magazine

Marc Lipsitch

Professor of Epidemiology

Nancy Messonnier

Robert Redfield

Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus

Further reading


Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor: molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic target

Haibo Zhang, Josef M. Penninger, Yimin Li, Nanshan Zhong, Arthur S. Slutsky


March 3, 2020

Authors' response: Plenty of coronaviruses but no SARS-CoV-2

Chantal B Reusken, Bart Haagmans, Adam Meijer, Victor M Corman, Anna Papa, Remi Charrel, Christian Drosten, Marion Koopmans


February 27, 2020

Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases by Johns Hopkins CSSE

John Hopkins


Coronavirus puts drug repurposing on the fast track

Charlotte Harrison


February 27, 2020

COVID-19: Resources Available to Address Concerns

American Society of Heating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHAE)


Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for SARS-CoV-2 and other lineage B betacoronaviruses

Michael Letko, Andrea Marzi, Vincent Munster


February 24, 2020

Genetic diversity and evolution of SARS-CoV-2

Tung Phan


Guidelines for pregnant women with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection

Guillaume Favre, Leo Pomar, Xiaolong Qi, Karin Nielson-Saines, Didier Musso, and David Baud


Multivariate Analyses of Codon Usage of SARS-CoV-2 and other


Haogao Gu, Daniel Chu, Malik Peiris, Leo L.M. Poon



Reconciling early-outbreak estimates of the basic reproductive number and its uncertainty: framework and applications to the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak

Sang Woo Park, Benjamin M. Bolker, David Champredon, David Earn, Michael Lie, Joshua Weitz, Bryan Grenfell, and Jonathan Dushoff



SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load in Upper Respiratory Specimens of Infected Patients

Lirong Zou, Feng Ruan, Mingxing Huang, Lijun Liang, Huitao Huang, Zhongsi Hong, Jianxiang Yu, Min Kang, Yingchao Song, Jinyu Xia, Qianfang Guo, Tie Song, Jianfeng He, Hui-Ling Yen, Malik Peiris, Jie Wu


February 19, 2020

Viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples

Yang Pan, Daitao Zhang, Peng Yang, Leo M Poon, and Quanyi Wang


February 24, 2020

Documentaries, videos and podcasts





Nicola Davis Science correspondent
September 25, 2020
the Guardian
Researchers around the world are training canines to sniff out the virus - could they be deployed for mass testing?
Kim Willsher in Paris and Sam Jones in Madrid
September 25, 2020
the Guardian
A man holds a sign that reads 'save the bars and restaurants', during a demonstration against coronavirus restrictions in Marseille. Photograph: Nicolas Tucat/AFP/Getty Images
Sarah Boseley Health editor
September 24, 2020
the Guardian
Since a Covid vaccine does not yet exist, the researchers probed attitudes towards vaccines in general. Photograph: Dado Ruvić/Reuters
Pamela Duncan and Robert Booth
September 24, 2020
the Guardian
Excess deaths in private homes prompts fears people are avoiding hospitals due to Covid
Amy Walker and Sarah Boseley
September 24, 2020
the Guardian
Researchers hope to begin world's first human challenge trials at east London quarantine facility in January
Tina Reed
September 23, 2020
Catholic healthcare giant Ascension posted a $1 billion net loss last year, becoming the latest in a string of major health systems to report major financial hits as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Jennifer Dowd
September 23, 2020
the Guardian
The path out of the pandemic relies on a full toolkit of strategies to buy time, says professor of public health Jennifer Dowd
Niko Kommenda and Frank Hulley-Jones
September 23, 2020
the Guardian
More than 170 teams of researchers are racing to develop a safe and effective vaccine. Here is their progress
Ian Sample Science editor
September 22, 2020
the Guardian
An ambulance drives past a sign displaying a Covid helpline in London. Photograph: Facundo Arrizabalaga/EPA
Nina Lakhani in New York
September 22, 2020
the Guardian
'We have two pandemics coming at the same time and only one vaccine - for seasonal flu - guaranteed.' Photograph: Artyom Geodakyan/TASS
Sarah Boseley Health editor
September 22, 2020
the Guardian
Chris Whitty and Patrick Valance. The scientific community are in disagreement over whether nationwide or targeted measures are the best approach. Photograph: James Veysey/REX/Shutterstock
Tina Reed
September 21, 2020
When it came to figuring out how to best help Humana's Medicare Advantage plans in the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, the company had to "rethink our role," Humana's Chief Medical Officer told Fierce Health Payer during a recent virtual event.
Linda Geddes Science correspondent
September 21, 2020
the Guardian
Woman coughing, posed by model. People experiencing persistent cough are supposed to self-isolate and get tested for coronavirus. Photograph: SIphotography/Getty/iStockphoto
Ron Amadeo
September 20, 2020
Ars Technica
Android engineers Dave Burke and Iliyan Malchev are back for our yearly Q&A.
Trudie Lang
September 20, 2020
the Guardian
The UK has done well on building capacity. But only wide access to simple, effective tests will allow us to manage life under coronavirus
Niko Kommenda and Frank Hulley-Jones
September 20, 2020
the Guardian
More than 170 teams of researchers are racing to develop a safe and effective vaccine. Here is their progress
As told to Alexandra Spring
September 19, 2020
the Guardian
Josh McGrane is one of the volunteers in the Oxford University Covid-19 vaccine trials. Photograph: Josh McGrane
Ellen Herlacher
September 18, 2020
There are a number of reasons why the nation, and world, should expect a morbidity crisis in the aftermath of COVID--and behavioral health will be a key part of the solution. That's why payers and providers, perhaps more than anyone else, should be accelerating their efforts to address behavioral health issues. And there are opportunities opening up for innovators to help improve access to care.
Aamna Mohdin (now) and Amelia Hill (earlier)
September 18, 2020
the Guardian
Coronavirus: WHO hold briefing on global outbreak - watch live
Haroon Siddique
September 18, 2020
the Guardian
A health worker talks with patient Shirley Hughes at the NHS Seacole Centre in Surrey. PPE shortages blighted efforts to combat the first wave of coronavirus. Photograph: WPA/Getty Images


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