The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is part of the United States Department of Defense making "pivotal investments in breakthrough technologies for national security".
Dwight D. Eisenhower created the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) on February 7, 1958 in response to the Soviet Union's successful launch of the first satellite into earth's orbit, Sputnik 1, in 1957. The successful launch of Sputnik 1 caught the US government and president Eisenhower off guard. Eisenhower went on to say that ARPA was created to "prevent technological surprise".
ARPA would later be renamed to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 1972. DARPA was briefly became ARPA again from 1993-1996, before adopting DARPA again in 1996. According to the Deputy Secretary of Defense at the time, William Perry, DAPRA adopted it's former name ARPA to "expand the agency's mission to pursue imaginative and innovative research and development projects having significant potential for both military and commercial (dual-use) applications."
Technologies developed by DARPA
Since the founding of DARPA in 1958, the agency has been responsible for developing several important technologies. Notable technologies developed, or helped, by DARPA include: the internet, graphical user interfaces (GUIs), the weather satellite, interactive maps (Example: Google Maps), voice-recognition systems (Example: Amazon's Alexa and Apple's Siri), Unix, cloud computing, and Global Positioning Systems (GPS).
This program seeks to enhance national defense through improving the synthetic biology capabilities of the United States of America. The living foundries program consists of two primary programs: 1. Living foundries: Advanced Tools and Capabilities for Generalizable Platforms (ATCG), and 2. Living Foundries: 1000 Molecules.
Success of the Corona program
The Corona photo-reconnaissance program was a joint spy satellite program between ARPA and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). A satellite from the program successfully took and delivered photos to the United States government that were taken over the Soviet Union, providing military intelligence during the Cold War until the program was decommissioned in 1972.
Launch of first weather satellite (TIROS)
ARPA in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), U.S. Defense Department, and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) worked together on the Television and Infrared Observations Satellites (TIROS) program to develop and successfully launch the worlds first weather satellite into orbit.
Establishment of the scientific field of material science
ARPA announced in the first three materials science and engineering contracts to their own Interdisciplinary Laboratory (IDL) program. The IDL program continued issuing new material science contracts until 1972 when the National Science Foundation took over the program changing its name to the Materials Research Laboratories (MRL) program.
Electronically Steered Array Radar (ESAR) program
ARPA pioneers supporting technologies and construction of the first ground-based phased array radars.
The Sputnik surprise and creation of ARPA
The Soviet Union (USSR) successfully launches the worlds first satellite into orbit, surprising the United States government. This event ultimately lead to the creation of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) on February 7, 1958 with the goal of keeping the United States the global technological superpower.
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- MilitaryOrganized body primarily tasked with preparing for and conducting war
- Government agencyOrganization in the machinery of government that is responsible for specific functions
- TechnologyMaking, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, and methods of organization