Cybersecurity is the protection of software, hardware, and data from digital attacks for the purpose of accessing, changing, destroying, interrupting, or extorting assets and information.


Cybersecurity, also known as computer security and information technology security, protects internet-connected systems from malicious cyber-attacks and focuses on protecting hardware, software, and data systems from unauthorized manipulation, control, and theft.

There are many cybersecurity approaches for protecting digital assets, including application security, information security, network security, operational security, disaster recovery, business continuity planning, and end-user education.

Data security

Data security is the term used to describe digital data protection, such as information stored in databases, from destructive outside forces, unwanted actions from hackers or cyberattacks, and accidental errors introduced by unauthorized users. Data security is a high-level term used to describe various sub-services, including data privacy, synthetic data, data encryption including cryptography and homomorphic encryption, and data integrity.

Synthetic data

According to McGraw-Hill, synthetic data is "any production data applicable to a given situation that is not obtained by direct measurement." Craig S. Mullins describes production data as "information that is persistently stored and used by professionals to conduct business processes."

Data encryption

Data encryption is a security method used to encode information that users can only access or decrypt with the correct encryption key. Encrypted data is sometimes referred to as ciphertext and will appear scrambled or unreadable to individuals without the proper access information. Two types of data encryption are homomorphic encryption, which allows an individual to perform calculations on encrypted data without decrypting it first, and cryptography, which requires a user to have a key to view the information.

Data integrity

Data integrity is defined as the overall accuracy, completeness, and consistency of data. Additionally, data integrity references regulatory compliance and data safety; one example is GDRP compliance and security. The integrity of data is maintained by processes and standards that are implemented in the design phases. Sub-sectors of data security include adversarial machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) safety.

Adversarial machine learning

Adversarial machine learning is a machine learning technique that attempts to fool or trick models through deceptive input to cause a malfunction in the machine learning model. This is done to fix breaks in code and better protect machine learning models from providing inaccurate data with vulnerabilities that can compromise the entirety of data sets.

AI safety

AI safety is an important developing technology as the development of deepfakes grows more prominent. Deepfakes are a synthetic AI form where users take on the identity of other people. Synthetic media generation of photorealistic avatars and actors causes concern for identity theft and biometric data collection, resulting in companies developing software to detect deepfakes proactively.

Network security

Network security is a set of rules and configurations developed and designed to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and accessibility of computer networks. Network security softwares work to prevent and monitor access, misuse, and modification of computer networks or other network-accessible devices or resources.

Application security

Application security is the process of finding, fixing, and enhancing the protection and securities involving applications. App security is typically implemented in the development stages, but oftentimes includes various tools and methods to help protect apps after they are deployed for use. Application security has become more necessary over the years as hackers have turned attention to applications over traditional websites and emails. Automated methods for assessing the effectiveness of application security have been developed including static program analysis and dynamic program analysis.

Static program analysis

Static program analysis is used in application security to ensure a product is protected before it is deployed. Static analysis takes place in a non-runtime environment and is also referred to as static application security testing (SAST). SAST is the method of looking at an application and testing its securities from the inside out. The test is performed without the deployment of the application and instead focuses on the source code, byte code, or application binaries for signs of vulnerability regarding security. Once the SAST is complete, data and control paths are modeled for security weakness analysis of the internal structure and security of the application, not the overall functionality.

Dynamic program analysis

Dynamic analysis, also known as dynamic application security testing (DAST) is a testing method that looks at the application from the outside, while the program or application is operating. DAST programs test the integrity of the application through manipulations to find vulnerabilities. The dynamic test simulates an outside attack against an application and analyzes the application's reactions to determine the level of vulnerability, if a vulnerability exists.

Endpoint security

Endpoint security is the process of securing endpoints or entry points on end-user devices such as laptops, desktops, and mobile devices from malicious attacks. Endpoint security systems and software protect the endpoints on the network or in the cloud from cybersecurity threats. Endpoint security has evolved from the well-known anti-virus software programs into software that can defend endpoints from sophisticated malware. Endpoint security is the combination of various software including antivirus, identity and access management, mobile device management, authentication, fraud detection, identity theft, email security, and anti-phishing.




Further reading


Documentaries, videos and podcasts


The Five Laws of Cybersecurity | Nick Espinosa | TEDxFondduLac

September 7, 2018




January 23, 2021
The Hindu
Cybersecurity was demoted as a policy field under the Trump administration.
Hikvision Digital Technology
January 19, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- In spite of a highly unusual 2020, the security industry's constant transformation has not stopped. Several significant shifts in the use of...
Sonam Sheth
December 19, 2020
Business Insider
"This could just be the tip of the iceberg," said a former NSA analyst. "No one had a solution to preventing an attack like this and here we are."
December 9, 2020
Sky News
The US firm has not blamed a specific country but some experts are pointing towards Russia.
Igor Bonifacic
December 8, 2020
FireEye, one of the largest cybersecurity firms in the US, says it believes it's been the victim of a state-sponsored hacking attack that saw the theft of internal tools it uses to conduct penetration testing for other companies.
Aaron Holmes, Jeff Elder and Maddy Simpson
December 5, 2020
Business Insider
An analysis of newly-released federal pay data reveals salaries at 24 major cybersecurity companies, many of which are still hiring aggressively.
Jeff Elder and Aaron Holmes
November 29, 2020
Business Insider
50 cybersecurity leaders that shaped 2020, including executives from Cloudflare, Okta, Microsoft, and Zscaler.
November 23, 2020
/PRNewswire/ -- Health care organizations are often at risk of cyberattacks due to a lack of dedicated IT and reliance on traditional reactive approaches. To...
Jeff Elder
November 22, 2020
Business Insider
Boutique concierge cybersecurity firms are now protecting the private lives -- and fortunes -- of the ultra-wealthy from hackers.
November 19, 2020
The Indian Express
The survey included a total of 2,200 respondents from countries around the world including India, US, UK, France, Germany, Singapore, Australia and others.
Press Trust of India
November 18, 2020
US President Donald Trump has fired a top Homeland Security official who last week said that the November 3 presidential election was the most secure one in Americas history
Stacy Liberatore
November 4, 2020
Mail Online
Bank statements and passwords are among the 75,000 files extracted from secondhand USB drives purchased from eBay, citing the importance of wiping drives properly, experts say.
Martin Coulter
December 7, 2019
Business Insider
Cybersecurity insiders claim NDAs are being used by big businesses to flaunt data laws. Lawyers defending victims of the BA breach call for changes.
By Ian Randall For Mailonline
December 3, 2019
Mail Online
The 3D printed jewellery - made in tandem with a Swedish designer - is intended to address the issues that can arise if an individual's biometric data is stolen.
October 1, 2019
From a company that is developing AI cancer diagnostics to help doctors radically improve patient outcomes, to a business that is on a mission to democratise robotics - disruptive tech start-ups from the UK will touch down in San Francisco today to uncover how to make impact in the US. The 17 companies were handpicked and invited personally by some of Silicon Valley's biggest investors and experts who have already successfully scaled businesses in the US and internationally. Over the...
September 26, 2019
, , , , • Both companies will co-invest up to 250 k€ for each startup , , , , , , , , , , • The main interest areas are Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Internet of Things, Video, Cybersecurity, Edge Computing among others. , , , , , , Wayra, the open innovation hub network by Telefónica, and TheVentureCity, the global accelerator of technological ecosystems with headquarters in Madrid and Miami, have signed a global deal to jointly invest in Latin-American startups focused on the Internet o...
Jack Cable
August 27, 2019
Harvard Business Review
Just one of the top 24 U.S. undergraduate programs does.
June 11, 2019
Grand Prize Industry 4.0 to GreenTropism , , Software components and algorithms based on sensor-independent artificial intelligence for analysing the composition and quality of matter in real time. , , The startup competed in the Datascience category. *** ArianeGroup Award , , Pierre-Guy AMAND, Head of Innovation Directorate, rewarded InBolt , , Smart module to be placed on each tightening tool (wrenches, screwdrivers), capable of identifying and automatically proposing the appropri...
May 28, 2019
Cybersecurity and data protection are on top of most organizations digitalization agenda, there are, despite this, few platforms that allow for insightful discussions on the topic. To meet this demand, Tieto is launching Cyber Talks, a podcast about IT security that will address subjects and challenges that the modern CISO (Chief Information Security Officer) is facing. Throughout the season well-known experts from the Swedish private and public sector will participate in discussing cur...
Reuters Editorial
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Cybersecurity company Palo Alto Networks Inc topped Wall Street estimates for revenue and profit on Tuesday, aided by better-than-expected growth in its product business, sending its shares up 6 percent.


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