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United States

United States

Federal republic in North America

American History

The American Civil War divided the United States in two--the Northern States versus the Southern States. The outcome of the four year battle (1861-1865) kept the United States together as one whole nation and ended slavery.

On April 6, 1917, the United States entered World War I by declaring war on Germany.

The National Museum of the Marine Corps is located next to the Marine Corps Base in Quantico, Virginia, and features exhibits on the actions of Marines during World Wars I and II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War.

Across the United States, military memorials and monuments commemorate wars, battles, and those who lived and served during those times. Popular points of interest by each major war include:

The African American Civil War Memorial and Museum in Washington, DC, has collections and exhibits to help visitors remember the African Americans who fought in the Civil War.

Civilian Medals and Honors

The Presidential Medal of Freedom - As the highest civilian award in the United States, the Presidential Medal of Freedom is given for an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the U.S., to world peace, or to cultural or other significant public or private endeavors. It may also be awarded to members of the military and non-citizens. First awarded in 1963, the medal can be additionally awarded "With Distinction" for especially important service. See a list of recipients from 1993 on.

The Congressional Gold Medal - The Congressional Gold Medal is the highest civilian award given by Congress. It is awarded for achievements that have a major impact on American history or culture.. Awardees can be civilian or military personnel and are not required to be citizens. This medal is also given in silver and bronze. This medal was first awarded to Founding Father George Washington by the Second Continental Congress in 1776. See a list of recipients.

The National Medal of Arts - This is the highest award given to artists and arts patrons by the United States government. The National Medal of Arts is awarded to individuals or groups who "are deserving of special recognition by reason of their outstanding contributions to the excellence, growth, support, and availability of the arts in the United States." Recipients are selected by the National Endowment for The Arts, and this medal was first awarded in 1984. See a list of recipients.

The Kennedy Center Honors - Awarded by the Kennedy Center's Board of Trustees, which is headed by the First Lady, this award is given by the president to honor outstanding contributions to U.S. art, music, theatre, film, and culture. This award was first given in 1978. See a list of recipients.

The National Medal of Technology and Innovation - This medal is awarded by the president of the United States to American inventors and innovators who have made significant contributions to the development of new and important technology. The award may be granted to a specific person, to a group of people, or to an entire organization or corporation. This medal was first awarded in 1985 as the National Medal of Technology. See a list of recipients.

Branches of the U.S. Government
Executive Branch:

The Executive branch, which is led by the President of the United State (POTUS) is responsible for making sure that laws are followed among other things

The Vice President

Vice president--The vice president supports the president. If the president is unable to serve, the vice president becomes president. The vice president can be elected and serve an unlimited number of four-year terms as vice president, even under a different president. The vice president also serves as the President of the Senate (see below).

Legislative Branch

The Legislative Branch is responsible for making new laws and reforming old ones. At the federal level, the Legislative Branch is Congress, which is composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

The Senate

Each state had two Senators, totaling 100 senators in all. The House of Representatives has 435 voting members and 6 non-voting members. The Senate is presided over by the Vice President who acts as the President of the Senate. However, he or she may only cast a vote it there is a tie so that the tie may be broken.

The House of Representatives

The voting members are the Representatives from each sate; the number of representatives from each state corresponds to the number of districts in that state. The non-voting members are the 5 delegates (from The District of Columbia, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands) and the resident commissioner from Puerto Rico. The House is lead by the Speaker of the House

Judicial Branch

The Supreme Court

The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country. The nine justices are nominated by the president and must be approved by the Senate (see above) with at least 51 votes.

The Justices of the Supreme Court, who can overturn unconstitutional laws, are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate.

Most cases reach the Court on appeal. An appeal is a request for a higher court to reverse the decision of a lower court. Most appeals come from federal courts. They can come from state courts if a case deals with federal law.


July 1, 1776
Declaration of Independence is Signed



Further reading


Documentaries, videos and podcasts





Eric Cheung, Will Ripley and Gladys Tsai, CNN Business
July 24, 2021
As China steps up military pressure on Taiwan, the self-governing island is preparing for the next big frontier of warfare: crippling cyberattacks.
July 23, 2021
The Economic Times
President Joe Biden in May proposed a $715 billion defense budget, which includes a huge research and development budget, but the Senate panel added even more funds to procure weapons platforms like F-35 jets made by Lockheed Martin and Arleigh Burke-class destroyers.
July 23, 2021
The Economic Times
"But as for what the Pakistanis are doing or are not doing and operationally, that's something that they should speak to, not us," he said when asked if the Pentagon has seen any evidence that the Pakistani Air Force has helped Taliban in gaining ground, especially in Kandahar province.
Brand Post
July 22, 2021
Operational maturity, the ability to scale, sustainable IT infrastructure, diverse connectivity and real-time visibility top the list for large enterprises.
Jane McGrath, Carrie Whitney, Ph.D.
July 21, 2021
We see buildings pop up and get torn down all the time, but some structures (and the architects who designed them) were built to last. These 16 are some of the most famous.
Heidi Ledford, Nature magazine
July 21, 2021
Scientific American
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
July 21, 2021
Coronavirus News Live Updates: India reported 42,015 fresh COVID-19 cases and 3,998 deaths in the last 24 hours, as per the Union Health Ministry's data on Wednesday.
July 21, 2021
The Economic Times
The 30-day extension came after Canada announced Monday it will start allowing fully-vaccinated U.S. visitors into the country on Aug. 9 for non-essential travel after the COVID-19 pandemic forced an unprecedented 16-month ban that many businesses complained was crippling them.
Sofie Bates
July 21, 2021
The coronavirus pandemic has changed the way we live, and several studies have documented how those widespread changes in human behavior have impacted the environment. NASA scientists and others using data from NASA and our partner satellites have shown that air pollution levels dropped significantly during COVID-19. A new, NASA-funded study, conducted by scientists at The George Washington University (GW) in Washington, D.C., zoomed in on the 15 largest metropolitan areas in the United States to see how the drop in air pollution differed from neighborhood to neighborhood. The paper was published July 20 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
July 20, 2021
This enlightening book is all about the author's life encounters as a young adult. In search for the true essence of life and his purpose for existing. His undivided motivation is to write a book that allows other people to get a better grasp of life much better. The objective of the book is also to share experiences that sparked his interest of writing. These life happenings had love in common, which fueled his inspiration. At age twelve, the period where author was motivated to write the...
July 20, 2021
Last month, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) announced the recall of an imported toy designed for children as young as 3. The metal rollers on the bottom of the flying dinosaur figures that come as part of the game contain levels of lead that exceed the federal lead content ban. The toys were made in China and imported by a company based in Colorado., , , , The recalled toys were sold exclusively through a major online retailer from February of this year through April. Consum...
July 20, 2021
The Economic Times
"A hundred percent we lost the war," Lilley said. "The whole point was to get rid of the Taliban and we didn't do that. The Taliban will take over."
Bhaskar Chakravorti
July 20, 2021
Harvard Business Review
The infrastructure package being debated in Congress doesn't go far enough. Here's what lawmakers need to do.
July 19, 2021
The Economic Times
In a simultaneous announcement, the US Department of Justice said four Chinese nationals had been charged with hacking the computers of dozens of companies, universities and government bodies in the United States and abroad between 2011 and 2018.
July 20, 2021
The Hindu
The United States was joined by NATO, the European Union,Britain, Australia, Japan, New Zealand and Canada in condemning the spying.
Ross McGuinness
July 19, 2021
Nadhim Zahawi was speaking as the country woke up to the so-called 'Freedom Day' of 19 July, when most mandatory COVID-19 rules are scrapped.
Stuart Miller
July 19, 2021
Los Angeles Times
Authors Geoff Manaugh and Nicola Twilley on 'Until Proven Safe,' a history of disease quarantine and a study of our failure to properly deploy it.
Sarah Stanley
July 19, 2021
Sea level is rising worldwide, thanks in large part to climate change. Rising seas threaten coastal communities and ecosystems, including marshes that lie at the interface between salt water and freshwater. Tidal marsh ecosystems feature distinct plants and play key ecological roles, such as serving as nurseries for fish. It is known that some tidal marshes can avoid destruction by migrating inland or through formation of new soil that raises their elevation, but a better understanding of how they are affected by rising seas could inform efforts to plan for and mitigate the effects.
July 18, 2021
The Economic Times
Floods swept Germany, fires ravaged the American West and another heat wave loomed, driving home the reality that the worlds richest nations remain unprepared for the intensifying consequences of climate change.


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