United States

United States

Federal republic in North America

American History

The American Civil War divided the United States in two--the Northern States versus the Southern States. The outcome of the four year battle (1861-1865) kept the United States together as one whole nation and ended slavery.

On April 6, 1917, the United States entered World War I by declaring war on Germany.

The National Museum of the Marine Corps is located next to the Marine Corps Base in Quantico, Virginia, and features exhibits on the actions of Marines during World Wars I and II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War.

Across the United States, military memorials and monuments commemorate wars, battles, and those who lived and served during those times. Popular points of interest by each major war include:

The African American Civil War Memorial and Museum in Washington, DC, has collections and exhibits to help visitors remember the African Americans who fought in the Civil War.

Civilian Medals and Honors

The Presidential Medal of Freedom - As the highest civilian award in the United States, the Presidential Medal of Freedom is given for an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the U.S., to world peace, or to cultural or other significant public or private endeavors. It may also be awarded to members of the military and non-citizens. First awarded in 1963, the medal can be additionally awarded "With Distinction" for especially important service. See a list of recipients from 1993 on.

The Congressional Gold Medal - The Congressional Gold Medal is the highest civilian award given by Congress. It is awarded for achievements that have a major impact on American history or culture.. Awardees can be civilian or military personnel and are not required to be citizens. This medal is also given in silver and bronze. This medal was first awarded to Founding Father George Washington by the Second Continental Congress in 1776. See a list of recipients.

The National Medal of Arts - This is the highest award given to artists and arts patrons by the United States government. The National Medal of Arts is awarded to individuals or groups who "are deserving of special recognition by reason of their outstanding contributions to the excellence, growth, support, and availability of the arts in the United States." Recipients are selected by the National Endowment for The Arts, and this medal was first awarded in 1984. See a list of recipients.

The Kennedy Center Honors - Awarded by the Kennedy Center's Board of Trustees, which is headed by the First Lady, this award is given by the president to honor outstanding contributions to U.S. art, music, theatre, film, and culture. This award was first given in 1978. See a list of recipients.

The National Medal of Technology and Innovation - This medal is awarded by the president of the United States to American inventors and innovators who have made significant contributions to the development of new and important technology. The award may be granted to a specific person, to a group of people, or to an entire organization or corporation. This medal was first awarded in 1985 as the National Medal of Technology. See a list of recipients.

Branches of the U.S. Government
Executive Branch:

The Executive branch, which is led by the President of the United State (POTUS) is responsible for making sure that laws are followed among other things

The Vice President

Vice president--The vice president supports the president. If the president is unable to serve, the vice president becomes president. The vice president can be elected and serve an unlimited number of four-year terms as vice president, even under a different president. The vice president also serves as the President of the Senate (see below).

Legislative Branch

The Legislative Branch is responsible for making new laws and reforming old ones. At the federal level, the Legislative Branch is Congress, which is composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

The Senate

Each state had two Senators, totaling 100 senators in all. The House of Representatives has 435 voting members and 6 non-voting members. The Senate is presided over by the Vice President who acts as the President of the Senate. However, he or she may only cast a vote it there is a tie so that the tie may be broken.

The House of Representatives

The voting members are the Representatives from each sate; the number of representatives from each state corresponds to the number of districts in that state. The non-voting members are the 5 delegates (from The District of Columbia, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands) and the resident commissioner from Puerto Rico. The House is lead by the Speaker of the House

Judicial Branch

The Supreme Court

The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country. The nine justices are nominated by the president and must be approved by the Senate (see above) with at least 51 votes.

The Justices of the Supreme Court, who can overturn unconstitutional laws, are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate.

Most cases reach the Court on appeal. An appeal is a request for a higher court to reverse the decision of a lower court. Most appeals come from federal courts. They can come from state courts if a case deals with federal law.


July 1, 1776
Declaration of Independence is Signed



Further reading


Documentaries, videos and podcasts





Sara Schonhardt, E&E News
April 21, 2021
Scientific American
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Katarina Zimmer, Knowable Magazine
April 21, 2021
Scientific American
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Smriti Mallapaty, Nature magazine
April 21, 2021
Scientific American
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Dama Financial
April 21, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- Dama Financial ("Dama") the premier provider of access to banking and payment solutions through its FDIC-insured banking partners for the...
Shannon Osaka
April 21, 2021
Companies and cities have been trying to cut carbon emissions on what could be termed "Easy" mode using "24/7 clean power".
Nancy Lapid
April 21, 2021
(Reuters) -The following is a roundup of some of the latest scientific studies on the novel coronavirus and efforts to find treatments and vaccines for COVID...
Science X staff
April 21, 2021
Researchers at the University of Barcelona, together with researchers from the University of Zurich (Switzerland) and Brown University (United States), have analyzed more than 10,000 evaluations that were carried out to candidates who wish to hold a public teaching position in Catalonia. The objective was to study how the decision by the committee of evaluators is affected by the fact that each candidate holds a certain position in the lists of people to be assessed. The study, published in the journal Science Advances, identifies a new cognitive bias that researchers have named the 'generosity-erosion effect." It stipulates that once the evaluators have scored one candidate generously, they tend to act harsher to the subsequent ones.
Valerie Volcovici
April 20, 2021
WASHINGTON (Reuters) -The United States will join an international effort to achieve net zero emissions by 2050 in the global shipping industry, climate...
Frost & Sullivan
April 21, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- Frost & Sullivan's recent analysis finds that continued demand for bandwidth and cloud connectivity needs are sustaining Ethernet demand in the...
April 21, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- The global autologous fat grafting market is projected to grow at a healthy CAGR of 10% through 2031. Increasing demand for non-invasive and...
Embassy of the United Arab Emirates
April 21, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- In celebration of Earth Day, the United Arab Emirates Ambassador to the United States and Israel's Ambassador to the United States and the...
Photographs by Dominic Bracco II; Text by Joshua Hammer; Research by Alfonso Alonso
April 21, 2021
Smithsonian Magazine
The butterflies' path, which stretches thousands of miles, is endangered by an array of challenges, including changes in climate and pesticides
April 21, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- CalAmp® (Nasdaq: CAMP), a connected intelligence company that helps people and businesses work smarter, today unveiled its new SC1302TM...
JinkoSolar Holding Co., Ltd.
April 21, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- JinkoSolar Holding Co., Ltd ("JinkoSolar" or the "Company") (NYSE: JKS), one of the largest and most innovative solar module manufacturers in...
Denison Mines Corp.
April 21, 2021
/PRNewswire/ - Denison Mines Corp. ("Denison" or the "Company") (TSX: DML) (NYSE American: DNN) is pleased to announce the initiation and ramp-up of In-Situ...
April 21, 2021
Police in the US state of Ohio fatally shot a Black teenager who appeared to be lunging at another person with a knife, less than an hour before former officer Derek Chauvin was convicted of murdering George Floyd.
Jacob Koshy
April 21, 2021
The Hindu
Coronavirus variants that carry some of the mutations associated with B.1.618 have also been found in the United States, Switzerland, Singapore and Finland.
Broadridge Financial Solutions, Inc.
April 21, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- Broadridge Financial Solutions, Inc. (NYSE:BR) is scheduled to release its financial results for the third quarter and the nine months ended...
April 20, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- Controladora Vuela Compañía de Aviación, S.A.B. de C.V. ("Volaris" or the "Company") (NYSE: VLRS and BMV: VOLAR), the ultra-low-cost airline...
Somini Sengupta
April 20, 2021
To slow down climate change, new coal projects need to end. A global forecast this week shows demand rising sharply.


Golden logo
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0; additional terms apply. By using this site, you agree to our Terms & Conditions.