In the mid-fifteenth century, the term organization was used in the English language, and it referred to the "act of organizing." The word emanated from Middle French Organisaton, which in turn was directly derived from Medieval Latin Organizationem. Around 1873, it began to mean "system or establishment." Originally, the word sprung from the Greek Organon, meaning "organ."
Organizations typically possess a mission, vision, and values. The mutual purpose that individuals in an organization work toward is referred to as the mission. An organization's mission can either be implied or directly expressed to its members. The latter is done in a mission statement. An organization’s vision refers to an image of future success for the group served by the organization, including for the organization itself. An organization’s values refer to the general priorities of the organization and are usually reflected in the manner in which the organization operates. These can be called real or enacted values. Desired values refer to how the organization requires members to operate.
There are various kinds of organizations, and they operate in the private or public sectors. There are political, or governmental organizations, and there are non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Examples include the armed forces, cooperatives, schools, charities, partnerships, etc. There are also hybrid organizations working in both public and private sectors, combining commercialization with the fulfillment of public duties. Organizations operated by volunteers are called voluntary organizations or associations, and they are able to work without legal formalities. There are organizations that operate in secret. For instance, organized crime with criminal groups dabbling in illegal activities, secret societies with underground operations, or resistance movements with secret meetings.