CD4 stands for cluster of differentiation 4. CD4 refers to the group of mAbs that recognize the CD4 cell surface molecule found on the surface of immune cells and also refers to the CD4 molecule itself.

CD4 stands for cluster of differentiation 4. In CD nomenclature, a CD number is assigned to a cluster of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize the same surface molecule and recognize a certain cellular differentiation pattern. CD4 refers to the group of mAbs that recognize the CD4 cell surface molecule and also refers to the CD4 molecule itself. The CD4 molecule is a glycoprotein with four extracellular domains, a transmembrane portion and a short intracellular tail. CD4 is located on the surface of various immune cells and functions in signal amplification and activation of T cells. CD4 defines the helper T cell type and is a well-known clinical cell surface protein marker for HIV progression. While CD8 positive (CD8+) T cells, also known as cytotoxic T cells, directly attack and kill virus-infected cells, CD4+ T cells prime CD8+ T cells and B cells and are also responsible for cytokine production that drives immune cell recruitment.




Further reading


Documentaries, videos and podcasts





Thamotharampillai Dileepan
May 3, 2021
Nature Biotechnology
The ability to identify T cells that recognize specific peptide antigens bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules has enabled enumeration and molecular characterization of the lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Fluorophore-labeled peptide:MHC class I (p:MHCI) tetramers are well-established reagents for identifying antigen-specific CD8+ T cells by flow cytometry, but efforts to extend the approach to CD4+ T cells have been less successful, perhaps owing to lower binding strength between CD4 and MHC class II (MHCII) molecules. Here we show that p:MHCII tetramers engineered by directed evolution for enhanced CD4 binding outperform conventional tetramers for the detection of cognate T cells. Using the engineered tetramers, we identified about twice as many antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in mice immunized against multiple peptides than when using traditional tetramers. CD4 affinity-enhanced p:MHCII tetramers, therefore, allow direct sampling of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells that cannot be accessed with conventional p:MHCII tetramer technology. These new reagents could provide a deeper understanding of the T cell repertoire. The detection of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells is improved with engineered peptide:MHCII tetramers.
April 8, 2021
Study of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination to Predict Immune Responses in Cancer Patients - Full Text View.
Simon Hunt
March 15, 2021
the Guardian
Other lives: Research physicist, immunologist and Quaker activist
Conor Hale
February 3, 2021
BD has launched a new COVID-19 blood test in Europe that can help hospitals identify incoming patients that may be more likely to require intensive care with a ventilator and carry a higher risk of death from the disease.
December 15, 2020
Changing Susceptible Body Constitution for COVID-19 Prevention by Chinese Medicine in Hong Kong Residents - Full Text View.
November 24, 2020
Clinical and Immunological Evolution of Covid-19 Occurring in a Context of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma - Full Text View.
Press Trust of India
August 4, 2020
According to Rath, a subset CD8 T cells provide a major anti-viral immune function which may have a substantive role to play, especially in people whose antibody responses turn out to be short-lived
May 5, 2020
Monocytes and NK Cells Activity in Covid-19 Patients - Full Text View.
April 27, 2020
St. Jude Tracking of Viral and Host Factors Associated With COVID-19 - Full Text View.
Apoorva Mandavilli
July 17, 2019
Scientists tested a costly approach to curbing the AIDS epidemic: Test everyone in the community, and treat anyone who is infected.


Golden logo
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0; additional terms apply. By using this site, you agree to our Terms & Conditions.