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Google

Google

Google is a technology company best known for its search engine. It was founded in 1998 and is headquartered in Mountain View, California.

Overview

Google is a Mountain View, California-based company that was officially launched in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin. Google is a multinational technology company that focuses on online advertising, a search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware. It is classified as one of the Big 5 Tech companies in the United States information technology industry alongside Amazon, Apple, Microsoft, and Facebook.

Google experienced rapid growth after its founding, allowing the company to make many acquisitions, develop products, and enter partnerships with other companies that go beyond its flagship search engine product, Google Search. The company released a line of work, productivity, and time management services known as Google Docs, Google Sheets, Google Slides, and Google Calendar, accessible through Google’s cloud storage system, Google Docs. The company also produced an email solution (Gmail), language translation (Google Translate), mapping and location services (Google Maps, Waze, Google Earth, and Street View), podcast hosting (Google Podcast), video sharing (YouTube), instant messaging and video chat services (Duo, Hangouts, Chat, and Meet), blog publishing (Blogger), note-taking (Google Keep and Google Jamboard), and photo organizing and editing (Google Photos).

Google leads the development of the Android mobile operating system (OS), the Google Chrome web browser, and Chrome OS, a light-weight operating system based within the Google Chrome web browser

The company has become more focused on developing hardware and devices and has formed partnerships with major electronics manufacturers between 2010 and 2015 to produce the Nexus device line. The line included smartphones (Google Pixel), smart speakers (Google Home), wifi routers (Google WiFi), and virtual reality headsets (Google Daydream).

Google.com is the most visited website globally, and additionally, Google was the most valuable brand in the world in 2017 until Amazon surpassed it in 2018. Despite Google’s success, the company has received criticism regarding privacy concerns, tax avoidance, antitrust, censorship, and search neutrality.

History

Google began at Stanford University in 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin. The project had an unofficial third founder named Scott Hassan, who was the original programmer for the program called “BackRub,” which later became Google. Hassan left the project before its official launch in 1998 and became the founder of Willow Garage in 2006.

Page conveyed the idea of an algorithm to Hassan called PageRank. His thoughts for the algorithm were to develop a system that analyzed relationships between pages and search terms regarding relevance, where conventional search engines at the time ranked pages based on how many times the exact search terms populated on a given page. Hassan took Page’s ideas and began to code an algorithm that would implement them.

Page and Brin initially called the search engine “BackRub” because it checked backlinks to determine site result relevance. The pair cites Hassan and Alan Steremberg as crucial components to Google’s development, along with Héctor García-Molina and Jeff Ullman. In 1998, Page, Brin, Rajeev Motwani, and Terry Winograd co-authored the first published paper describing PageRank as the Google Search Engine’s initial prototype.

Eventually, the name was changed to Google, which originated from a misspelling of the word “googol,” which describes the number 1 followed by 100 zeros. Page and Brin felt this would represent and signify that the search engine intended to provide information en masse.

On September 15, 1997, the domain name www.google.com was registered, and the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998, headquartered in Susan Wojcicki’s Menlo Park garage, a friend of Page and Brin. The company hired Craig Silverstein, a fellow Ph.D. student from Stanford, as its first employee.

Initial funding for Google came from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, who invested $100,000 in the company in August of 1998, before the company’s official incorporation. Google received three other Angel investments in 1998 from Jeff Bezos, founder of Amazon.com, David Cheriton, a Stanford University computer science professor, and Ram Shriram, an entrepreneur. The investments from investors, family, and friends totaled approximately $1 million, allowing Page and Brin to open Google’s original office in Menlo Park, California. After additional small investments between the end of 1998 and early 1999, a new round of funding for $25 million was announced on June 7, 1999, with participation from Sequoia Capital and Kleiner Perkins.

Growth

In March of 1999, the company relocated its offices to Palo Alto, California, home to several Silicon Valley technology start-up companies. The following year, Google began to sell advertisements associated with search keywords, despite Page and Brin’s initial opposition to running an ad-funded search engine. To maintain uncluttered search engine results, Google offered text-based ads only. In June of 2000, Yahoo!, one of the most used websites in the early 2000s, announced Google would become its default search engine, replacing Inktomi.

In 2001, Google investors felt that Google needed strong internal management, and it agreed to hire Eric Schmidt as the Chairman and CEO.

By 2003, Google had outgrown two locations and rented an office complex from Silicon Graphics (SGI) at 1600 Amphitheater Parkway in Mountain View, California. The complex soon came to be known as the Googleplex, yet another play on the word googol. After three years in the location, Google purchased the property from SGI for $319 million. By 2006, Google had become a word used in everyday language, so it was added to the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary and The Oxford English Dictionary.

Initial public offering (IPO) and early 2000s

On August 19, 2004, Google’s initial public offering (IPO) was made available, and at that time, Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Eric Schmidt made an agreement to remain at Google together until 2024, though Schmidt would later leave Google in 2011. At the time of IPO, Google offered 19,605,052 shares, starting at $85 per share. The shares were sold in an online auction format using a system engineered by Morgan Stanley and Credit Suisse, who were underwriters for the deal. The sale of $1.67 billion gave Google a market capitalization of more than $23 billion.

In October of 2006, Google announced that it acquired the video-sharing platform YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google stock; the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006. On April 13, 2007, Google reached another agreement to acquire DoubleClick, a company that developed and provided internet ad services to major companies, for $3.1 billion. This transaction transferred valuable relationships that DoubleClick had with web publishers, advertising agencies, and companies like Coca-Cola, MasterCard, and more to Google.

In 2005, The Washington Post had reported that Google had seen a 700% increase in third-quarter profit due to companies shifting their advertising strategies from print ads to internet advertising. By May 2011, the number of monthly unique visitors using Google surpassed one billion for the first time in Google’s history. Additionally, in the same year, Google was averaging approximately 3 billion searches per day. To accommodate the increasing workload, the company built 11 data centers located worldwide, each housing thousands of servers.

On August 15, 2011, Google made its largest acquisition to date when it announced that it would be acquiring Motorola Mobility for $12.5 billion. The purchase helped Google gain the Motorola patent portfolio on wireless phones and other wireless technologies, which helped protect Google in the ongoing disputes with other mobile phone developers, primarily Apple and Microsoft. This acquisition also allowed Google to continue to freely offer Android OS.

2012 and beyond

2012 was the first year that Google was able to generate $50 billion in annual revenue, generating only $38 billion in 2011. In January of 2013, Larry Page gave a statement saying Google had ended on a strong quarter with revenues up by 36% year-over-year and 8% quarter-on-quarter. He noted that hitting $50 billion in 15 years was a considerable achievement.

In June of 2013, Google announced its acquisition of Waze for $966 million, stating that Waze would remain its own independent entity, but its social features, like its crowdsourced location platform, had valuable integrations for Google Maps, Google’s own mapping, and navigation service.

On September 19, 2013, Google announced the launch of a new company called Calico, a health and well-being company led by Apple Inc. chairman Arthur Levinson. Larry Page said in a public statement that the company would focus on “the challenge of aging and other associated diseases.”

On January 6, 2014, Google announced it would acquire DeepMind Technologies, a privately-held artificial intelligence (AI) company based in London, England. There were unsubstantiated reports that the acquisition cost $400 million. However, the claims were unable to be verified by official sources, and a Google spokesperson wouldn’t comment on the price. This acquisition played a role in Google’s growth within the AI and robotics industries.

In 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016, Google was the second most valuable company, behind Apple Inc., in the world, only taking the title in 2017, before Amazon claimed it in 2018. In 2016 Google had a valuation of $133 billion.

On August 10, 2015, Google announced it would be reorganizing its various interests under a new parent company called Alphabet Inc. Google became Alphabet’s leading subsidiary and continues to be the umbrella company for Alphabet’s Internet interests. During the restructure, Sundar Pichai became the CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page, who then became the Alphabet CEO.

By October of 2016, Google operated 70 offices in more than 40 countries and remains to date as the most visited website globally. Many other Google-owned websites are also on the list of most popular websites, which include YouTube and Blogger.

On August 8, 2017, Google fired an employee by the name of James Damore after he distributed a memo throughout the company. It argued that bias and “Google’s ideological echo chamber” clouded the company’s thinking regarding diversity and inclusion and that biological factors, not discrimination alone, caused the average woman to be less inclined to technical positions than men. The Google CEO Sundar Pichai stated that Damore violated company policy by “advancing harmful gender stereotypes” in the workplace; he was fired the same day. A New York Times columnist named David Brooks argued that Pachai handled the situation improperly and publicly called for his resignation.

Between 2018 and 2019, the tension between Google’s leadership and employees was on the rise as staff members began protesting company decisions regarding internal sexual harassment, a censored Chinese search engine, and a military drone AI. On October 25, 2018, The New York Times published an article exposing Google titled “How Google Protected Andy Rubin, the ‘Father of Android.” At the same time, the company announced it had fired 48 employees over the past two years for sexual misconduct. On November 1, 2018, over 20,000 Google employees and contractors staged and participated in a global walk-out to protest the company’s processes for handling sexual harassment complaints. Later, in 2019, some of those same workers accused Google of retaliation against its internal activists.

Stadia, Google’s cloud gaming platform, was announced on March 19, 2019, allowing Google a stake in the video game market.

In June of 2019, the United States Department of Justice reported that it would investigate Google for antitrust violations, which led to the filing of an antitrust lawsuit in October of 2020, on the grounds that the company had abused a monopoly position in the search engine and search advertising markets.

In April of 2020, regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, Google announced that it would be making several cost-cutting measures. Some of the solutions involved some hiring freezes and slowing hiring for the remainder of 2020, excluding a small number of areas within the organization. Google also stated it would be recalibrating the focus and pace of its investments in areas regarding data centers and machines. It would also be cutting down on non-business essential marketing and travel.

Products
Search Engine

Google indexes billions of webpages for users to search for the information they are looking for through keywords and operators. Google is the most dominant search engine used in the United States, with a market share of 65.6% according to comScore market research in November of 2009.

In 2002, Google launched its Google News service, an automated service that summarized news articles from various websites and sources. Google Search also hosts Google Books, a service that searches the text found within books in its database and shows a limited preview of that text or the full book where it is allowed.

In May of 2017, Google deployed the “Personal” tab feature in Google Search, which allows users to search for content in their Google accounts’ various services, including email messages in Gmail and photos from Google Photos.

Advertising

Google generates most of its revenue from advertising, which is noted in its annual reports. Advertising includes the sales of apps, purchases made in-app, digital content products on Google and YouTube, Android, and licensing service fees, including fees received for Google Cloud offerings. 46% of the advertising profit is made from clicks, which amounted to $109,652 million in 2017 alone. The three principal methods for obtaining clicks was through AdMob, AdSense, and DoubleClick AdExchange.

In 2006, Google reported $10.429 billion in advertising revenue and only $112 million in licensing and other income. In 2011, 96% of Google’s revenue was being generated from its various advertising programs. In addition to Google’s native algorithms for interpreting search requests, Google uses technology from DoubleClick to project user interest and target marketing from user history. In 2007, Google launched AdSense for Mobile to take advantage of the mobile advertising market.

Google Analytics is another product offered through Google’s advertising product. It allows website owners to track where and how people are using their website. It can provide an analysis of click rates for all links on any given page. Google advertisements can be placed on third-party websites, as well. Google Ads allows advertisers to display their ads anywhere in the Google content network through a cost-per-click model. Google AdSense, a similar product, allows website owners to display the advertisements on their website and earn money each time the ad is clicked.

Consumer services
Web-based services

Google offers various web-based services including Gmail for email, Google Calendar for scheduling and time-management, Google Drive for cloud storage of files, Google Maps for navigation and satellite imagery,Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides for productivity, Google Keep for note-taking, YouTube for video sharing, Google Photos for photo storage and sharing, Google Translate for translation of languages, Duo for social interaction, Google My Business for management of public business information, and Stadia for cloud-based gaming.

Not all Google services are web-based or were launched as web-based services. An example of this is Google Earth, which was launched in 2005 as a client software download for computers. Users could view high-definition satellite photos from around the globe once the software is installed. However, Google Earth was eventually shifted to a cloud-based platform, no longer requiring users to download it to their computers.

Software

Google is the developer for the Android mobile operating system and its adjacent smartwatches, televisions, cars, and Internet-of-things-enabled smart devices and their variations. The company also developed and manages the Google Chrome web browser and Chrome OS, an operating system based solely on Chrome.

Hardware

In January of 2010, Google released Nexus One, the first Android phone under its brand. This release resulted in the development of a number of phones and tablets under the “Nexus” branding, but the line was discontinued in 2016 and was replaced with the brand Pixel.

In 2011, the Chromebook was introduced to the market and operated on Chrome OS.

In July of 2013, Google launched the Chromecast dongle that allowed users to stream content from their phones on their televisions.

In June of 2014, Google announced Google Cardboard, a fold-out cardboard viewer where a smartphone could be inserted. The Cardboard viewer could then be used to access and grow interest in virtual reality (VR).

In November of 2016, the Google Home was launched as a smart assistant that could answer voice-prompted questions, play music, find information, sync to the user’s calendar, weather apps, and more, and control third-party in-home appliances. Google Home was rebranded to Google Nest after the acquisition of Nest the companies and their product lines were integrated. The Google Nest line includes Google Nest Hub, Google Home Mini, Nest Hub Max, Nest Mini, and Google Home Max.

In May of 2019, Google unveiled the Pixel 3a at Google I/O, only seven months after the original Pixel 3 release. The phones were a midrange offering between the Pixel 3 and the Pixel 3 XL.

The Pixel 4 was announced in October of 2019 as the first Pixel phone to be offered for sale by major service providers at launch. The company also announced its second generation of Pixel Buds, Bluetooth wireless headphones, with built-in Google Assistant and Google Translate.

In November of 2019, Google released the first controller developed for Stadia.

In August of 2020, Google launched the Pixel 4a after months of delay due to the COVID-19 pandemic that caused the annual I/O developer conference to be canceled. In September of 2020, Google launched the Pixel 4a 5G and the Pixel 5 simultaneously at its live-streamed Launch Night In event. The Nest Audio and new Chromecast, and new Google TV were all announced during that same event.

Enterprise Services

Google Workspace, formerly known as G Suite until October of 2020, is a monthly subscription offering from Google for organizations and businesses to gain access to a variety of Google services, including Gmail, Google Drive, and Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides. Despite these services having free options, additional administrative tools, unique domain names, and 24/7 support are included when businesses pay for subscriptions.

On September 24, 2012, Google launched Google for Entrepreneurs, a not-for-profit business incubator providing co-working spaces for startups. Google called these locations Campuses, and it provided the startups with access to workshops, conferences, and mentorships. As of 2020, there were seven Campus locations located worldwide in Berlin, London, Madrid, Seoul, Sao Paulo, Tel Aviv, and Warsaw.

On March 12, 2016, Google announced the Google Analytics 360 Suite, a set of integrated data and marketing analytics products designed for enterprise-class marketing and integrates with BigQuery on the Google Cloud. It largely competes with programs like Adobe, Oracle, Salesforce, and IBM.

Internet services

In February of 2010, Google announced the Google Fiber project and shared its experimental plans to build an ultra-high-speed broadband network for 50,000 to 500,000 customers in one or more United States cities. After Google restructured to Alphabet Inc., Google Fiber was moved to the Alphabet Access division.

In April of 2015, Google announced Project Fi, a mobile virtual network operator that combined WiFi and cellular networks from different providers to enable seamless connectivity and fast internet signals from anywhere. Fi is operated by the U.S. Cellular and T-Mobile networks.

In September of 2016, Google started its Google Station project for public WiFi at railway stations in India. The initiative got over 15,000 online for the first time and has 3.5 million recurring users monthly. By December of 2016, Google Station had been launched at over 100 different railway stations. In February of 2017, Google announced it intended to expand beyond railways and hoped to go citywide in Pune, India.

Google acquisitions

Timeline

April 29, 2021
Google announces career and digital training initiative for formerly incarcerated individuals
April 21, 2021
Google release Android 12 Developer Preview 3, with improvements to the overall app experience.
April 15, 2021
Google announces a series of pledges to fund and promote coronavirus vaccines across the globe, including $250 million in advertising grants for pro-vaccination groups.
March 30, 2021
Google releases an app called Stack that borrows the technology underlying its DocAI enterprise tool for document analysis.
March 16, 2021
Google launches a new website for families whose kids are beginning to use technology at families.google.
February 20, 2021
Google announces Android 12 with several new features that powers your Android phone.

.

February 15, 2021
Seven West Media has become the largest Australian news media business to strike a deal with Google to pay for journalism in a partnership announced today.

Google regional director Mel Silva said: "We are excited to welcome Seven West Media today as a major Australian publishing partner to join Google News Showcase.

February 9, 2021
Google permanently wipes out Play Music data
February 1, 2021
Ford to install Google's Android operating system in most cars from 2023
January 25, 2021
Google says it is committing $150 million to promote COVID-19 vaccine education and equitable distribution to underserved communities.
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Funding rounds

Funding round
Funding type
Funding round amount (USD)
Funding round date
Investment
Google Series A round, June 1999
25,000,000
June 1999
4 Results
Results per page:
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Products

Product
Description
Website
Launch date
Industry

A blended learning platform designed to be used by educators for both in-person and virtual learning. It is a part of Google and was launched in May 2014.

May 6, 2014

A machine learning software library for numerical calculation

Google Tables by Area 120, a workflow management tool built to help teams track and automate work.

September 22, 2020

Suite of machine learning products developed by Google that enables people to train machine learning models.

Gps navigation mobile app

Web service by google

Internet search engine developed by google, inc.

Tangi is a short-form video application.

Online advertising service

Photo and video sharing and storage service by google

May 28, 2015

Web mapping service application by Google

Byteboard is an application for conducting remote interviews for technical positions like coding.

An open source programming language.

Optical head-mounted computer glasses developed by google

Social networking service

June 28, 2011

FeedBurner is a company founded in 2003 by Dick Costolo.

Cloud storage and file synchronization service from google

Google broadband network in various locations in the united states with 1 gbit/s bandwidth

ML Kit beta brings Google's machine learning expertise to mobile developers in a powerful and easy-to-use package.

Defunct rss/atom feed aggregator formerly operated by google

Thin-client netbook developed by google running chrome os

Interactive whiteboard developed and manufactured by google

44 Results
Results per page:
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Acquisitions

Acquisition
Description
Acquired company
Acquisition amount (USD)
Date announced

Firebase was acquired by Google

October 21, 2014

1,100,000,000
June 11, 2013

750,000,000
November 9, 2009

1,650,000,000
October 1, 2006

151,000,000
October 26, 2011
56 Results
Results per page:
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People

Name
Role
LinkedIn

Eric Schmidt

Former CEO

Larry Page

Founder and former CEO

Sergey Brin

Founder

Sundar Pichai

CEO

Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date

Almost Everything You Need to Know About Google's History

Christopher McFadden

Web

January 15, 2018

Documentaries, videos and podcasts

Title
Date
Link

Google's 20th Birthday

September 27, 2018

Companies

Company
CEO
Location
Products/Services

News

Title
Author
Date
Publisher
Description
Adrian Potoroaca
May 12, 2021
TechSpot
Back in 2019, we learned about a joint effort by Amazon, Apple, Google, and the hundreds of companies in the Zigbee Alliance whose aim is to deliver...
Lauren Johnson
May 12, 2021
Business Insider
Insider's top advertising and media stories for May 13.
Lauren Johnson
May 12, 2021
Business Insider
His mandate is to convince companies to move brand-building ad dollars to Amazon.
Paige Leskin and Grace Kay
May 12, 2021
Business Insider
Movie theaters, tanning beds, and a gym-turned-nightclub are a few of the amenities on the super yachts owned by billionaires in tech.
Marianna Tu
May 12, 2021
Harvard Business Review
Ditch the virtual happy hour in favor of one-on-one chats.
Julian Chokkattu
May 12, 2021
Wired
This pocket-friendly Android phone has a speedy processor and an excellent screen. It's also really boring.
Arizton Advisory & Intelligence
May 12, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- In-depth analysis and data-driven insights on the impact of COVID-19 included in this Singapore data center market report. Singapore data...
Natasha Lomas
May 12, 2021
TechCrunch
Vacation rental startup Holidu has tucked $45 million in Series D funding into its suitcase -- bringing its total raised since being founded back in 2014 to more than $120M. The latest funding round is led by 83North with participation from existing investors Prime Ventures, EQT ventures, Coparion, Senovo, Kees Koolen, Lios Ventures and Chris [...]
May 12, 2021
mint
Google is phasing out third-party online tracking cookies and Apple is requiring app owners to ask for explicit permission to track users across other companies' apps
Alison DeNisco Rayome
May 12, 2021
CNET
We're expecting to get a first look at a finalized Android 12 at Google I/O next week. Here's what we know so far.
Natasha Lomas
May 12, 2021
TechCrunch
Vacation rental startup Holidu has tucked $45 million in Series D funding into its suitcase -- bringing its total raised since being founded back in 2014 to more than $120M. The latest funding round is led by 83North with participation from existing investors Prime Ventures, EQT ventures, Coparion, Senovo, Kees Koolen, Lios Ventures and Chris [...]
Aditya Saroha
May 12, 2021
The Hindu
The tech giant said in a blog post that it may be required to verify the accuracy and freshness of the information as the content will be user-generated, and not from authorised sources.
GWM
May 12, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- Am 10. Mai veröffentlichten Google und Kantar gemeinsam die "2021 BrandZTM Top 50 Chinese Global Brand Builders", und GWM wurde zum ersten Mal...
Jason Aten
May 11, 2021
Business Insider
Every move Google makes toward privacy still assumes a world where tracking is a given. This feature only serves to continue normalizing that idea.
Shira Ovide
May 11, 2021
www.nytimes.com
The standard business practices developing around streaming entertainment are rotten and need to change.
Dan Ackerman
May 11, 2021
CNET
In honor of the Chromebook's 10th anniversary, see how this "browser in a box" went from uninspired in 2011 to required in 2021.
Stephen Shankland
May 11, 2021
CNET
The Matter alliance wants to make it easier for us to embrace smart lightbulbs, door locks and thermostats.
Reuters
May 11, 2021
@bsindia
A global chip shortage has hit automakers hard, with Ford Motor Co saying it could halve second-quarter production
Josh Scott
May 11, 2021
BetaKit
Lightspeed has partnered with Google to give its small and medium-sized business (SMB) retailers access to Google's marketing and advertising tools. Through the new...
Eli Blumenthal
May 11, 2021
CNET
Roku's latest $40 device is pretty much everything you need in a streamer.
SHOW MORE

References

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