Cluster: Biotechnology

Cluster: Biotechnology

A cluster of topics related to biotechnology.

Biotechnology is the use of technology to modify or manipulate living systems or parts of living systems for the generation of useful products, biological processing, to treat disease or to acquire knowledge. Products manufactured or processed using biotechnology are found in agricultural, pharmaceutical, food, chemical and biofuel industries. Biotechnology is also used in waste treatment.

Biotechnology fundamentals

Biotechnology is used to modify living systems or parts of living systems based on knowledge about essential parts or processes which allow living things to grow, reproduce, use resources and respond to their environment.

  • DNA
  • RNA
  • Transcription
  • Translation
  • Protein
  • Genetics
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
  • Genomics
  • Nutritional genomics
  • Proteomics
  • Enzyme
  • Cell
  • Microbiology
  • Metabolism
  • Cellular respiration
  • Phenomics
  • Phosphorylation
  • Kinase
  • DNA methylation
  • DNA methylation landscape
  • Inverton (invertible DNA regions)
  • Aptamer
Biotechnology tools

Biotechnology tools have been developed in research areas such as molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology, genetics, microbiology, cell biology and agriculture.

Nucleic acid sequencing
  • DNA sequencing
  • RNA sequencing
  • Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq)
  • amplicon sequencing
  • 16s sequencing
  • 18s sequencing
  • CIDER-Seq
Gene editing tools

Biomaterials interact with biological systems. They can be natural or synthetic, alive or lifeless and are made of multiple components. Biomaterials are often used in medical applications.

  • Hyaluronic acid
  • Graphene-based biomaterials

Biomolecules, also called biological molecules, are molecules produced by cells of living organisms. DNA, RNA and enzymes are examples of biomolecules. The following are biomolecules with uses in pharmaceuticals, food, cosmetics or textiles.

  • Hyaluronic acid
  • spider silk, recombinant spider silk is produced by Kraig Biocraft Laboratories
  • Mycotech
Mapping Projects

Mapping projects serve as reference manuals to living systems by showing the organization of components within living organisms. Mapping projects promote the sharing of biological information.

  • Human cell atlas
  • Allen Brain Atlas
Facilitating access to DNA sequences
Large biopharmaceutical companies
  • Abbvie
  • Amgen
  • Roche
  • GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)
  • Gilead
  • Novartis
  • Merck
  • Actelion (acquired by Johnson & Johnson)
  • Sanofi
  • Pfizer
  • Adare Pharmaceuticals
  • Genentech
  • Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine
Therapeutics companies

The following companies are using biotechnology in disease research and in development and production of medicine or therapies for a range of injuries or illnesses.

Drug delivery system
  • Xycrobe Therapeutics
  • Rani Therapeutics
  • Aryx Therapeutics
  • Ablitech, Inc.
  • Abraxis Bioscience
  • ZenCapsule (cancer treatments)
  • Evox Therpeutics (exosome delivery)
  • Anjarium Biosciences (engineered exosomes)
  • Kala Pharmaceuticals (ocular conditions)
Drug discovery platforms
  • AbCellera Biologics
  • Orbit Discovery
Kidney disease
  • Akebia Therapeutics
  • Visterra (antibody-based medicines)
Pain treatment
  • Revance Therapeutics
  • Aclaris Therapeutics
  • Aegle Therapeutics
  • AOBiome
  • Argos Therapeutics
  • Circle Pharma
  • Karyopharm Therapeutics
  • Jounce Therapeutics
  • Delve Therapeutics
  • Mersana Therapeutics
  • G1 Therapeutics
  • Stelvio Therapeutics
  • Mirna Therapeutics
  • Stemline Therapeutics
  • Chrysalis Therapeutics
  • CytomX Therapeutics
  • OncoVista Innovative Therapies
  • Iconic Therapeutics
  • Cellerant Therapeutics
  • Sierra Oncology (previously ProNAi Therapeutics)
  • Sorrento Therapeutics
  • IRX Therapeutics
  • Galera Therapeutics
  • Affimed Therapeutics
  • Fate Therapeutics
  • OncoSenX
  • Abraxis Bioscience
  • Simpatica Medicine
  • SF17 Therapeutics
  • Autolus
  • Cell Design Labs
  • iOx Therapeutics
  • Argonaut Therapeutics
  • Genentech
  • Fusion Pharmaceuticals
  • Ziopharm Oncology
  • Genocea Bioscience
  • Senti Biosciences
  • Ziopharm Oncology
Rare disease
  • Amicus Therapeutics
  • BioMarin
  • PTC Therapeutics
  • Hyperion Therapeutics
  • Tevard Biosciences
  • Recursion Pharmaceuticals
Therapeutics targeting RNA splicing
  • Envisagenics
Multi-drug resistant bacteria
  • Spero Therapeutics
  • Nabriva Therapeutics
  • Nextbiotics
ADHD treatment
Depression and anxiety
Autoimmune and inflammatory disease
Respiratory and pulmonary disease
Cardiovascular disease
Contract research companies
  • Ichor Therapeutics
Regenerative medicine
Neuromuscular disease
Alzheimer's, neurological and neurodegenerative diseases
  • Rodin Therapeutics
  • Nuon Therapeutics
  • Cognition Therapeutics
  • Voyager Therapeutics
  • Synosia Therapeutics
  • Kernel
  • Renew BioPharma
  • Rheostat Therapeutics
  • Leucadia Therapeutics
  • Alzheon
  • Neuraly
  • BlueRock Therapeutics
Eye disease or injury
  • Loop Therapeutics
  • Oraya Therapeutics
  • Genentech
Bone repair and sports medicine
  • EpiBone
  • Osiris Therapeutics
  • ZetaGen Therapeutics
Eating disorders
Antibacterial products and therapeutics
  • Amprologix
  • Phage therapy
  • Locus Biosciences
  • Eligo Bioscience
  • Nextbiotics
  • Nestle
  • BiomX
  • PhagoMed Biopharma
  • Pherecydes Pharma
  • Procarta Biosystems
  • Oisin Bio
  • Human Longevity
  • Celgene
  • Unity Biotechnology
  • resTORbio
  • Alkahest
  • Calico
  • Altay Biopharma
Plant-based manufacturing of therapeutics and vaccines
  • Medicago
Live bacteria therapeutic delivery systems
Genome editing and gene therapy
  • Editas Medicine
Drug discovery in microbes
  • LifeMine Therapeutics
  • Deinove
Vaccines and treatments for infectious disease
  • AbCellera Biologics
  • Clover Biopharmaceuticals
  • Distributed Bio
  • Inovio Pharmaceuticals
  • Meissa Vaccines
  • Microsynbiotix (oral vaccines for aquaculture produced in algae)
  • Moderna
  • Novavax
  • Regeneron
  • Sanofi Pasteur
  • Stemirna Therapeutics
  • Swiftscale Biologics
  • VIR Biotechology
  • Emergex Vaccines Holding Limited
  • Ligandal

Theranostics combines diagnotics and therapeutics.

In vitro diagnostics (IVD) and molecular diagnostics companies

Biotechnology is used by IVD companies to develop tests that detect diseases in vitro, meaning outside the body, from human samples like blood, urine and tissue. Molecular diagnostics are a subset of tests within IVD which detect DNA and RNA in order to assess health. Examples are detection of disease-causing gene mutations or presence of viral DNA or RNA. Detection of proteins using antibodies is considered separate from molecular diagnostics but falls under IVD. In addition to molecular diagnostics and immunoassays, the IVD market also includes clinical chemistry, hematology analyzers and microbiology culture.

  • Mammoth Biosciences
  • Abbott Diagnostics division of Abbott Laboratories
  • Roche Diagnostics
  • Siemens Healthineers
  • Danaher Corporation
  • Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.
  • Illumina
  • Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.
  • LabCorp
  • Luminex Corporation
  • Quest Diagnostics
  • Sysmex Corporation
  • Grail
  • Clear Gene
  • Exosome Diagnostics
  • Cofactor Genomics
  • Owlstone Medical
  • Caspr Biotech
  • Molecular Stethoscope
Diagnostics tools
  • Cas12a based DETECTR system to detect viruses
  • Cas12a based HOMES system to detect viruses and small nucleotide polymorphism sites in human DNA related to health and personal characteristics
  • Cas13a based SHERLOCK to detect pathogenic viruses and bacteria
  • Cas12- and Cas13- based molecular diagnostics by Mammoth Biosciences
  • CRISPR-on-a-chip for cancer diagnostics
  • CRISPR-Chip
Advising oncology treatment based on molecular tests

Personalized health and disease risk testing
Genetic Testing for Disease Risks
  • 23andMe
  • Color Genomics
Epigenetic Testing for Disease Risks
  • Chronomics
Large Genomics and Health Studies
  • Genomes to People
Genomic analysis for drug development and deployment
  • Coral Genomics
  • Auransa
  • Janus Genomics
Microbiome analysis
  • Juno Bio
Proteomics-based biomarkers
  • Inoviv
RNA-based biomarkers
  • Gatehouse Bio
Quantum computing applications in life sciences
  • Entropica Labs
  • GTN Ltd
Genetic ancestry testing
  • 23andMe
  • Ancestry
  • HomeDNA
  • Living DNA
  • Gene-by-Gene provides Family Tree DNA
  • Gene-by-Gene runs the Genographics Project labs which uses the National Geographic Geno DNA Kit
  • African Ancestry
  • Full Genomes
  • DNA Tribes
Imaging technology and bioanalytics
  • Openwater
  • Protea Biosciences Group
  • 3Scan
  • Vivax Bio and its subsidiary, 3D Bioprinting Solutions
Biotechnology companies that provide research tools

The following companies that produce instruments, kits, reagents and computer software for basic and applied biological research.

  • Merck KGaA
  • Qiagen
  • GenScript
  • Berkeley Lights
  • TouchLight
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology
  • Asimov (Biotechnology)
  • A-Alpha Bio
  • Oxford Genetics
  • SunP Biotech
  • Labcyte
  • Abgent
  • Bento Bioworks developed a portable DNA analysis kit called Bento Lab
  • Refeyn
  • Chai Biotechnologies
  • Arbor Biosciences
Microfluidic cell culture, organ-on-a-chip, human-on-a-chip
  • Scaled Biolabs
  • Hesperos
Sustainable and biodegradable materials
  • bioMASON
  • Bluepha
  • Visolis
  • Kraig Biocraft Laboratories
Food industry
  • Air Protein
  • Amai Proteins
  • Proterro
  • Solar Foods
  • MiProbes (biosensor for food contamination)
Chemical industry
  • EnzBond
  • METabolic EXplorer
Agriculture (Ag biotech)
  • Apeel Sciences
  • Monsanto
  • Bayer CropScience
  • DowDuPont
  • Syngenta
  • AquaBounty
  • Caribou Biosciences
  • Benson Hill Biosystems
  • MoA Technology
  • Deinove
  • Pando Nutrition
  • Proterro (feed industry)
Biological control systems
  • Oxitec (insect-based control of disease-carrying mosquitoes and crop-damaging insects)
Carbon capture and conversion
  • Oakbio
  • NovoNutrients
  • Florigene

First generation biofuels include ethanol and plant oil produced from sugar and starch. Second generation biofuels are produced from non-food biomass called lignocellulose and are called cellulosic biofuels. Third generation biofuels are derived from algae and produce feedstock as well as fuel. Fourth generation biofuels are electrofuels or photobiological solar fuels.

  • Proterro
Biomining and bioremediation
  • Bio-Mine
  • Universal Bio Mining
  • Grindhouse Wetware
  • Koniku
Biotechnology in conservation
  • Revive & Restore
Skincare products
  • Mother Dirt
  • Deinove
Blockchain and biology

The ability of blockchain to facilitate transparency, control and sharing of information, while keeping data secure, is being applied to biotechnology. Blockchain technology in data storage and online platforms can improve sharing and access to information and also provide quicker ways for tracking and managing various steps in drug development.

 For immunotherapies such as CAR-T cell therapy, blockchain can provide ways to store, maintain, track and secure information about cells derived from a donor patient like editing performed, storage conditions and transport from donor to recipient. Information must be accessible to patients, physicians, laboratory scientists, logistics companies, supply chains and infusion centers.

  • Nebula Genomics (genome sequencing company)
  • Genexi (blockchain and cryptocurrency marketplace)
  • Orvium (scientific publishing)
Other biotechnology companies
  • SyntheX
  • Inscripta
Trade Associations
Biotechnology investment
  • AmorChem
  • Inevitable Ventures
  • Tech.Bio
  • OSI (Oxford Sciences Innovation)
  • Lux Capital
Biotech startup support
  • LabCentral Inc.
  • BioRiiDL
  • Bio, Tech, and Beyond
Consultants in Biotechnology
  • ChinaBio
Research Institutes
Community biolabs and projects
  • BioCurious
  • Open Insulin
  • Transtech Conference
  • International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology
  • Discovery On Target
  • BIO-Europe
  • Biotech Showcase
  • Cell Series USA
  • The American Society of Human Genetics annual meeting
  • The American Society for Cell Biology annual meeting
Biosafety organizations




Further reading


1H 2019 biopharma startup and VC report

Richard Murphey



Documentaries, videos and podcasts




Two Pore Guys, Inc

Santa Cruz, CA

Nanopore Detection Platform


March 2, 2021
The Economic Times
The policy, which looks to consolidate the states position as a global hub for engineering R&D, has been drafted by the Department of IT and Biotechnology and seeks to offer multinational companies the option of either setting up new ER&D units or expanding their existing facilities.
Research and Markets
January 25, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- The "Nanoparticles in Biotechnology, Drug Development and Drug Delivery Systems" report has been added to's offering....
Bharath Manjesh
January 5, 2021
Other vaccines being developed in India, dangerous conspiracy theories, private hospitals keen on jumping in-news relevant to Indias fight against Covid-19
December 26, 2020
The Economic Times
Variations in gene sequences will keep happening as the virus spreads across the globe, says principal scientific adviser K VijayRaghavan. About 5,879 variants of SARSCoV-2 exist in India itself.
Valuates Reports
December 18, 2020
/PRNewswire/ -- The Biochips Market is Segmented by Type (DNA Chip, Lab-on-a-Chip, Protein Chip, Others), By Application (Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical...
Press Trust of India
December 17, 2020
Over 100 experts from friendly neighbouring nations have so far been trained to strengthen capacities in their countries for facilitating phase-3 clinical trials of Indian Covid-19 vaccine
Boris Babic
December 1, 2020
Harvard Business Review
Or, for that matter, a Covid-19 vaccine?
Press Trust of India
August 24, 2020
A Mission COVID Suraksha has been proposed to be set up with a corpus of nearly Rs 3,000 crore, sources said.
May 22, 2020
Developed by Beijing-based firm, the vaccine shows development of both forms of immunity
April 19, 2020
The centre has formed a high-level task force to oversee the work being carried out to develop vaccine against COVID-19, which has killed over 500 people in the country.
Rebecca Spalding
October 3, 2019
Biotechnology company ADC Therapeutics SA postponed its planned $200 million (162.34 million pounds) U.S. initial public offering on Wednesday, citing adverse market conditions as it became the third company to pull a planned IPO in recent days.


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