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Type of biological fuel from which energy is derived

Biofuel are fuel from vegetable or animal raw materials, from organisms or organic waste products.

Liquid biofuel (for internal combustion engines, e.g. ethanol, methanol, biodiesel), solid biofuel (wood, brickets, fuel granules, chip, straw, bonfire, luzgas) and gaseous (synthesis gas, biogas, hydrogen).

54 to 60% of biofuel are traditional forms: wood, plant residues and dry manure for household heating and cooking. It's used by 38% of the world's population.

The main form of biofuel in electricity is pellets produced from wood.

Transport biofuel are mostly ethanol and biodiesel. In 2014, ethanol accounted for 74% of the transport biofuel market, biodiesel - 23% (mainly in the form of methyl aethers of fat acid), hydrated vegetable oil (HVO) - 3%. These fuel are produced from food raw materials. Ethanol is derived from sugar cane (61%) and from grain (39%). Soy and raps are the main types of raw materials for biodiesel production. Attempts to commercialize liquid biofuels from sources not competing with food production have not yet produced statistically meaningful market results.

Biofuel are being enhanced by mandatory standards requiring a certain percentage of biofuel in energy use. By 2011, such standards existed at the national level in 31 countries, at the regional level - in 29 regions.



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