Bi-dimensional crystalline structure of carbon

Graphene is an atom-thick layer of carbon that was the first two-dimensional material ever discovered. Under an atomic microscope graphene is a flat lattice of hexagons linked in a honeycomb pattern. Graphene’s structure allows electrons to move across the lattice unimpeded by other layers at high speed. Graphene can carry a thousand times more electricity than copper. Andre Geim and Kostya Novoselov are authors of a 2004 Science paper that first describes graphene based on research conducted in Russia and the UK. Geim and Novoselov, who are both at University of Manchester were awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics “for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene”.

Graphene was discovered by Andre Geim, a physics professor at the University of Manchester. Geim specializes in microscopically thin materials and wondered how very thin layers of carbon might behave under certain conditions. Geim’s research group discovered that graphite, which consists of stacks of atom-thick carbon layers, comes off onto Scotch tape in thin flakes. By folding the tape and then pressing and pulling apart, the flakes were further peeled down to thinner layers until it reached the thinness of an atom-thick layer of carbon.

Geim’s group discovered that graphene, like silicon, has a pronounced field effect, suggesting it could replace silicon in some applications. The field effect shown by graphene when placed near an electric field indicated that conductivity could be controlled. Semiconductors like silicon can turn on and off in the presence of an electric field and that switching generates the ones and zeros in computer chips. Graphene is a semi-metal that cannot be off without modifying the material in a process called doping. However doping graphene has been found to reduce electron mobility. Doping graphene can be achieved by the deposition of different adsorbates, either atoms or molecules, on the graphene surface.


Graphene is a material that is thin and strong with high thermal and electrical conductivity. These characteristics along with its high permeability and high electron mobility make graphene potentially useful for applications in electronics such as semiconductors, energy storage and generation devices and sensors. Graphene films can be used in protective coatings on smartphones and flexible electronic devices. In various applications graphene replaces silicon.

Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are nanometer-sized material derived form one or a few layers of graphene. GQDs have a large surface to mass ratio and are fluorescent. GQDs have applications in organic photovoltaic devices, catalysis, sensors and biomedicine. GQDs have been shown to enter the cytoplasm of human cells without significantly affecting cell viability. GQDs have been used in research related to tissue imaging, cancer diagnostics, intracellular sensing and drug delivery.


December 2, 2019
Mosquito bite prevention through graphene barrier layers
March 5, 2018
Unconventional superconductivity in magic-angle graphene superlattices
October 22, 2004
Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films

Two-dimensional graphitic films are described by a research group led by Andre Geim. Researchers were from University of Manchester, United Kingdom and Institute for Microelectronics Technology, Russia.



Andre Geim

Discovered graphene, Nobel Prize

Kostya Novoselov

Nobel Prize - graphene

Further reading


How Twisted Graphene Became the Big Thing in Physics | Quanta Magazine


Material Question

John Colapinto


December 15, 2014

Documentaries, videos and podcasts





By Ian Randall For Mailonline
November 8, 2019
Mail Online
Work will begin today on laying a 2460 feet (750 metre) -long stretch of the pothole-resistant wonder material on the main road through the village of Curbridge, west of Oxford.
Science X staff
October 9, 2019
Transparent conductive films (TCFs) have many applications in touch screens, organic light emitting diodes and solar cells. These applications need materials that are strong, energy efficient and stable, which is why companies and researchers are interested in carbon-based materials. This applies especially to networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes, which are expected to replace the metal-oxide films that are currently used.
Bob Yirka
September 27, 2019
A team of researchers from the U.K., China and Spain has found that graphene exhibits mechanical properties that are similar to those of graphite. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the group describes testing flakes of graphene in a unique way, and what they found.
Science X staff
September 23, 2019
Graphene is actually a 3-D material as well as a 2-D material, according to a new study from Queen Mary University of London.
Research and Markets
September 13, 2019
DUBLIN, Sept. 13, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- The "Opportunity Assessment of Graphene Oxide" report has been added to's offering. "Opportunity...
Shawn Knight
August 27, 2019
Graphene was once praised as a miracle material that would enable everything from faster computer chips to space elevators. While we're still waiting for those advancements to take shape, scientists have been finding all sorts of surprising alternative uses for...


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