Tezos is a self-amending cryptographic ledger. The Tezos protocol allows for stakeholders to appove amendments to the state as well as the protocol itself.

Tezos is a decentralized blockchain whose protocol allows for stakeholders to approve any amendments to the protocol led by Kathleen and Arthur Breitman. It is a platform for smart contracts which facilitates formal verification of the mathematical properties of the code governing transactions with the intention of being a true digital commonwealth. The currency the native to the Tezos blockchain is called tezzie (XTZ). Governance of Tezos is designed to be a commonwealth such that token holders vote and determine future upgrades to the protocol. This is called on-chain governance, which prioritizes voting for soft-fork upgrades to the network rather than the network splits that occur via hard forks in other blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Ethereum.


The Tezos position paper (August 3, 2014) and white paper (September 2, 2014) were written by L.M. Goodman.


The Tezos token sale or ICO raised 361,122 ether and 65,703 bitcoins which at the time of sale (29 June - 12 July 2017) was worth approximately $232 million dollars, making it the largest initial coin offering ever at that time.


While amendments by the community may alter the consensus mechanism in the future, the seed protocol for Tezos employs a delegated proof-of-stake system. Token holders are able to designate one or more individuals to create blocks on their behalf. These block creators, often called validators or witnesses, generate blocks and are financially rewarded in proportion to the amount of the network that has designated them as validator.

Smart contracts

Tezos smart contracts are written in a functional programming language called Michelson. Michelson was designed with the intention of facilitating formal verification of smart contracts such that the behavior and correctness of the contracts is mathematically proven.


February 27, 2018
Tezos Foundation adds members to the board

Olaf Carlson-Wee, Pascal Cléré, Marylene Micheloud and Hubertus Thonhauser are added to the Tezos foundation board.

February 22, 2018
Gevers steps down from Tezos foundation

Following a dispute with Arthur and Kathleen Breitman, Johann Gevers steps down as president of the Tezos foundation to be replaced by Ryan Jesperson.



Arthur Breitman

Kathleen Breitman

Further reading


Scaling Tezos — scaling with recursive SNARKs (succinct non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge)

Arthur Breitman

Tezos — A Self-Amending Crypto-Ledger White Paper

L.M Goodman

Documentaries, videos and podcasts


Arthur Breitman of Tezos: "Governance" | Blockstack Summit 2017

Aug 11, 2017

EB136 – Arthur Breitman: Tezos - A Self-Amending Crypto-Ledger

Jun 20, 2016

Kathleen Breitman - Tezos Unleashed

Jul 13, 2017

Tezos, an explainer video (hi-res)

Ju 16, 2017




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