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Blockchain and cryptocurrency

Blockchain and cryptocurrency

Topics related to blockchain and cryptocurrency.

Cryptocurrency is defined as a group of binary data that acts as a medium of exchange, or currency. Cryptocurrencies are usually fiat currencies, as they are not backed by, or convertible into, a commodity like gold. Cryptocurrency transactions are verified and recorded by a decentralized system that uses cryptography, rather than by a centralized authority like a bank.

Most cryptocurrencies are built to run on blockchains. Blockchains are records of cryptocurrency transactions made up of individual "blocks" that are formed with each transaction and linked together with cryptography. Blocks are all tied to and built off of the previous blocks behind it, which reinforces the chain it creates. Each block is made up of a cryptographic hash of the last block, a date and timestamp, and other data related to the transaction the block is referencing. Blocks and blockchains are very difficult, but not impossible, to modify due to each block's ties to the next: any data alteration affects every other subsequent block in the chain.

Base layer protocols

Base layer protocols are the peer-to-peer networks which form the basis of the Decentralized application (dApp) web. These base protocols are typically blockchains with an associated cryptocurrency coin secured by a consensus protocol where participants in the network decide collectively on the addition of new blocks to the blockchain ledger.

Blockchain theory and fundamentals

Fundamental concepts related to blockchains.

Blockchain properties

Properties of blockchains and cryptocurrency systems.


Components of blockchains.


Consensus algorithms, sybil control mechanisms, and other topics related to consensus mechanisms for establishing a consistent canonical agreement between network participants on the blockchain state.

Sybil control mechanisms

Consensus mechanisms

Blockchain attack vectors

Methods by which malicious actors can attempt to subvert or disrupt the intended functionality of blockchain protocols.


Cryptocurrencies with the primary intention of a decentralized currency replacement to traditional fiat currencies by being a store of value, a unit of account, or a medium of exchange.

Smart contract platforms

Platforms for decentralized applications allowing for the execution of code on the blockchain in the form of smart contracts. These platforms allow for more generalized logic to be coded on the blockchain enabling a broad range of Web 3.0 decentralized applications.

Privacy cryptocurrencies

A specialized form of cryptocurrencies focused on maintaining the privacy and anonymity of individuals transaction with them.

Distributed ledgers (non blockchain)

A class of distributed ledgers whose structure does not rely blocks of transactions but rather other architectures like a directed acyclic graph. These alternate ledgers have different security, scalability, and consensus properties from blockchain technologies.

Permissioned ledgers and blockchains

Blockchains or distributed ledgers that require special access or permission to participate rather than being open to the public.


Infrastructure comprises the development stack for building decentralized applications. These are protocols and tools that may connect and support applications and other protocols in a variety of ways.


Interoperability protocols allow for communication of state, data, or value transfer between different blockchains.

Decentralized file storage

Store and retrieve files and data without relying on a trusted central authority.


Decentralized database projects.


Projects focusing on both on-chain and off-chain solutions for increasing blockchain transaction throughput.

Privacy and security

Privacy and security projects for decentralized applications.

Cryptocurrency token and NFT

A token is a type of digital crypto-assets, giving owners conferring the right to own something assets: product, service, or security.

The main attribute of the token against the non-fungible token (NFT) is standardization. You can create a token for fiat currency, gold, oil, and other things that have a definite standard. But for non-standard things like pieces of art, second-hand goods, etc, using NFT.

Smart contract developer tools

Tools which help developers create and secure smart contract code.

Smart contract programming languages

Programming languages that are specific to smart contracts, i.e. contract-oriented programming languages.

Blockchain oracles and prediction markets

Blockchain oracles are a blockchain technology that allows blockchains or smart contracts to interact with external data sources. Prediction market blockchains focus on bringing traditional prediction markets to the blockchain.


Projects restructuring the way that institutions, political systems, and people govern and organize themselves using blockchain or decentralized technologies.

Decentralized organizations

Projects with decentralized governance or providing support for managing organizations through decentralized governance.

Open Internet

Projects working towards a more open and user controlled Internet.


Decentralized VPN services.

Value Exchange

Projects creating marketplaces or frameworks for peer to peer value exchange without a centralized intermediary. Projects in these categories often have what are considered utility tokens, which represent future access to a service.


Advertising platforms connecting users, advertisers, and publishers directly without ad network intermediaries.


Protocols enabling the sharing and monetization of data resources.

Decentralized marketplaces

Projects building decentralized marketplaces.

Decentralized mesh networking

Projects working on decentralized mesh networks.


Decentralized social networks, communication tools, and social related applications built using blockchain technology. These projects employ a variety of differentiators from traditional social networks involving data privacy, monetary incentives, and more.

Content Monetization

Projects working on decentralized content monetization platforms enabling content creators and content consumers to transaction directly without third party mediation.


Decentralized projects in which users provide computation in exchange for tokens.


Projects focusing on the redistribution, transmission, and retail of energy via decentralized systems.

Property & housing rental

Decentralized property and housing rental.


Decentralized ride sharing.


Projects related to decentralized storage of genomic data and marketplaces for the exchange of genetic information.


The field of decentralized finance and cryptocurrency investments.

Centralized exchanges

Centralized exchanges for cryptocurrencies trading.

Decentralized Exchanges (DEX) or non-custodial relayers

A decentralized cryptocurrency exchange is an exchange market that utilizes blockchain or another decentralized technology to enable peer to peer transfer of digital assets without reliance on a trusted third party to hold funds usually supported by liquidity providers.


Services that help individuals make payments.

Trading / market makers

Tools and projects assisting the trading and exchange between cryptocurrencies.

Asset management platforms

Platforms for managing cryptocurrency investments.

Cryptocurrency wallets

Wallets are the user interface for directly interacting with the blockchain to transfer and move cryptocurrencies. Both hardware and software are included.

Tax platforms
Crypto hedge funds and venture firms

Cryptocurrency hedge funds and venture firms are investment funds which pool capital from investors into a group of assets focusing entirely or partially on cryptocurrencies or other decentralized digital assets. Hedge funds and venture funds typically have different incentive structures, with hedge funds being focused on shorter timeframes and venture firms on longer timeframes.

Credit & lending

Projects working on credit, risk, and lending.


Decentralized peer to peer insurance.

Security Tokens

Platforms for issuing and exchanging tokenized securities.

Debit Cards

Debit cards for spending cryptocurrencies.


Platforms to manage and launch blockchain crowdfunding projects.


Stablecoins are projects attempting to create decentralized cryptocurrencies with specific properties like low volatility and non reliance on centralized backing.

Liquidity & accessibility


Crypto-collectibles are digital collectibles, commonly using the ERC-721 non-fungible Ethereum token standard, recorded on a blockchain ledger.


Other types of cryptocurrency and blockchain related projects.

Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC)

This is an electronic obligation by the monetary regulator that is used as an instrument of payment. It seems like cryptocurrency but has a few different attributes:

  • Centralized issuer. The CBDC can’t be earned by mining or staking like usual cryptocurrencies. Only the national regulator (usually it is the central bank of government) can issue new digital coins.
  • Legal status. The CBDC is legal in the country that issued it. In the future it will be legal in other countries.

Read more about CBDC here.

Data authenticity and supply chain

Securing data records on immutable ledger systems.


Companies consulting on blockchain and smart contract technologies.

Gaming & entertainment

Cryptocurrencies as video game virtual assets, or other projects related to entertainment and gaming.

Internet of Things

Decentralized projects aiming to link the Internet of things to decentralized blockchain technology.


Ethereum is launched.
Blockchain technology becomes available to use for information other than currency tracking.
January 3, 2009
Satoshi Nakamoto launches the Bitcoin network.
October 31, 2008
Satoshi Nakamoto, founder of Bitcoin, publishes his white paper discussing blockchain technology and a new peer-to-peer payment method: "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System."
Stuart Haber and Scott Stornetta, the founders of blockchain technology, publish their paper “How to Timestamp a Digital Document,” discussing the use of hash functions to continuously generate files.

Further Resources


Blockchains & Distributed Ledger Technologies

Shermin Voshmgir


Introduction to Permissioned Blockchains

Nitish Singh


June 2, 2019

Permissioned blockchain | Examples | Public, Private, Permissioned Blockchains Compared



Research and Markets
April 7, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- The "Global Blockchain and Cryptocurrency Market 2021" report has been added to's offering. The "Global Blockchain and...
January 12, 2021
/PRNewswire/ - BLOCKLAND: 21 Stories of Bitcoin, Blockchain and Cryptocurrency tells the story, origin, history, culture, legends, and anecdotes of the entire...


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