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Princeton University

Princeton University

A private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey, United States.

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JD Alois
June 14, 2021
Crowdfund Insider
Click HERE to find out ⭐ SEC: Gensler Selects Renee Jones as Director of CorpFin, John Coates as General Counsel. | Crowdfund Insider: Global Fintech News, including Crowdfunding, Blockchain and more.
IEEE Computer Society
June 7, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and the IEEE Computer Society (IEEE CS) have named Margaret Martonosi as the recipient of the...
Science X staff
June 7, 2021
phys.org
It's hard to see more than a handful of stars from Princeton University, because the lights from New York City, Princeton and Philadelphia prevent our sky from ever getting pitch black, but stargazers who get into more rural areas can see hundreds of naked-eye stars--and a few smudgy objects, too.
Forrest Meggers, Dorit Aviv, Adam Rysanek, Kian Wee Chen, Eric Teitelbaum
May 26, 2021
Scientific American
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Science X staff
May 20, 2021
phys.org
We observe water vapor condensing into liquid droplets on a daily basis, be it as dew drops on leaves or as droplets on the lid of a cooking pot. Since the work of Dutch physicist J.D. van der Waals in the 19th century, condensation has been understood to result from attractive forces between the molecules of a fluid.
SIGGRAPH
May 19, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- SIGGRAPH 2021 announces 191 selected research projects from 22 countries as part of both its Technical and Art Papers programs this summer. The...
Abdullah Shihipar
May 19, 2021
Business Insider
A study showed that thousands of COVID-19 deaths could have been prevented if states kept their eviction moratoriums in place.
Davide Castelvecchi, Nature magazine
May 18, 2021
Scientific American
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Catherine Zandonella
May 13, 2021
phys.org
A new discovery led by Princeton University could upend our understanding of how electrons behave under extreme conditions in quantum materials. The finding provides experimental evidence that this familiar building block of matter behaves as if it is made of two particles: one particle that gives the electron its negative charge and another that supplies its magnet-like property, known as spin.
DNA Web Team
May 6, 2021
DNA India
Beware! Your old mobile number can be used to take all your money away, here's how - Researchers at Princeton University found the whole act of recycling numbers can put the users at security and privacy risks.
Science X staff
April 28, 2021
phys.org
Every day, the sun ejects large amounts of a hot particle soup known as plasma toward Earth where it can disrupt telecommunications satellites and damage electrical grids. Now, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Princeton University's Department of Astrophysical Sciences have made a discovery that could lead to better predictions of this space weather and help safeguard sensitive infrastructure.
InXpress Holdings Ltd.
April 22, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- InXpress Holdings Ltd, ein softwaregestützter globaler Franchisegeber für Transport- und Logistikdienstleistungen, gab heute die Ernennung von...
Saad-Roy, C. M., Morris, S. E., Metcalf, C. J. E., Mina, M. J., Baker, R. E., Farrar, J., Holmes, E. C., Pybus, O. G., Graham, A. L., Levin, S. A., Grenfell, B. T., Wagner, C. E.
April 23, 2021
Science
For two-dose vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, some jurisdictions have decided to delay the second dose to rapidly get the vaccine into more people. The consequences of deviating from manufacturer-prescribed dosing regimens are unknown but will depend on the strength of immune responses to the vaccines. Saad-Roy et al. took a modeling approach to tackling the inevitable uncertainties facing vaccine rollout. The authors found that although one-dose strategies generally reduce infections in the short term, in the long term, the outcome depends on immune robustness. A one-dose strategy may increase the potential for antigenic evolution if immune responses are suboptimal and the virus continues to replicate in some vaccinated people, potentially leading to immune-escape mutations. It is critical to gather serological data from vaccinated people and, to avoid negative outcomes, to ramp up vaccination efforts worldwide. Science , this issue p. [363][1] ### INTRODUCTION As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic continues, the deployment of safe and effective vaccines presents a key intervention for mitigating disease severity and spread. Numerous logistical challenges and shortages have emerged alongside the international distribution of approved vaccines. In response, several countries have chosen to delay the second dose in an effort to increase the number of individuals receiving at least one dose. A key question then becomes how the timing of delivery of the second dose will affect future epidemiological and evolutionary outcomes. ### RATIONALE We build on an existing immuno-epidemiological framework that assumes that, without vaccination, individual immunity after recovery from primary infection may eventually wane, leading to (a potentially reduced) susceptibility to secondary infections. To explore epidemiological outcomes, we extend the model to incorporate two vaccinated classes, corresponding to individuals who have received either one dose or two doses of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. As with natural immunity, we allow for one- or two-dose vaccinal immunity to wane, and we consider a continuous spectrum for the interdose period between vaccines. To reflect the increase in available doses resulting from a delayed second dose, we model the rate of administration of the first dose as an increasing function of the interdose period. We then consider evolutionary outcomes by coupling this framework to a simple phylodynamic model for potential viral adaptation under different evolutionary scenarios, each with its own assumptions regarding viral abundance and within-host selection for the different partially susceptible classes. ### RESULTS We find that delaying second vaccine doses reduces COVID-19 infections in the short term by increasing the proportion of immune individuals. In the longer term, however, both the infection burden and the relative potential for viral adaptation are highly dependent on the robustness of natural or vaccinal immune responses. Notably, we find that even if immunity conferred by a single vaccine dose is poor, starting with a one-dose policy early on to increase the number of individuals immunized and then switching to the manufacturer-recommended two-dose regime as vaccine capacity increases can mitigate potential negative longer-term epidemiological and evolutionary outcomes. This mitigation can also be achieved by ramping up overall vaccination rates as availability improves. ### CONCLUSION The deployment of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines will strongly shape postpandemic epidemiological trajectories and characteristics of accumulated population immunity. Our models show that the combination of different vaccine dosing regimes and variations in the robustness of natural and vaccinal immunity may result in a wide range of potential epidemiological and evolutionary outcomes in the medium term. It is therefore imperative to determine the strength and duration of clinical protection and transmission-blocking immunity through careful clinical evaluations in order to enforce sound public policies. In places where vaccine deployment is delayed and vaccination rates are low, our results stress the subsequent negative epidemiological and evolutionary impacts that may emerge. Particularly because these consequences (for example, the evolution of new variants) could emerge as global problems, there is an urgent need for global equity in vaccine distribution and deployment. ![Figure][2] The relative robustness of one- or two-dose vaccinal immunity and natural immunity shape future epidemiological and evolutionary outcomes for SARS-CoV-2. An immuno-epidemiological model (left) coupled with a phylodynamic model (middle) is used to explore projections for COVID-19 infection burden and immune landscapes (top right) and potential rates of SARS-CoV-2 viral adaptation (bottom right) in the medium term. The accompanying online interactive application () can be used to explore these projections for a broad range of model parameters. Given vaccine dose shortages and logistical challenges, various deployment strategies are being proposed to increase population immunity levels to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Two critical issues arise: How timing of delivery of the second dose will affect infection dynamics and how it will affect prospects for the evolution of viral immune escape via a buildup of partially immune individuals. Both hinge on the robustness of the immune response elicited by a single dose as compared with natural and two-dose immunity. Building on an existing immuno-epidemiological model, we find that in the short term, focusing on one dose generally decreases infections, but that longer-term outcomes depend on this relative immune robustness. We then explore three scenarios of selection and find that a one-dose policy may increase the potential for antigenic evolution under certain conditions of partial population immunity. We highlight the critical need to test viral loads and quantify immune responses after one vaccine dose and to ramp up vaccination efforts globally. [1]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.abg8663 [2]: pending:yes
Saad-Roy, C. M., Morris, S. E., Metcalf, C. J. E., Mina, M. J., Baker, R. E., Farrar, J., Holmes, E. C., Pybus, O. G., Graham, A. L., Levin, S. A., Grenfell, B. T., Wagner, C. E.
April 23, 2021
Science
Hanage and Russell conjecture [see also ([ 1 ][1])] that intermediate levels of immunity may sufficiently restrict within-host viral population size and thus limit adaptive mutations. The evolutionary model in our Research Article encompasses a wide range of scenarios, including the optimistic one Hanage and Russell propose (see scenario 1 in Fig. 4A of the Research Article). However, we also argued that uncertainties in immunodynamics, and in particular evolutionary dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), dominate our ability to project key scenarios. We therefore produced generic models in an effort to encompass this variability while providing a useful framework for considering possible future outcomes. We would also like to clarify that the calculations for evolutionary potential in our Research Article involve only infections after natural or vaccinal immunity has waned [i.e., I S (secondary infection after waned natural immunity), I S1 (infection after waned one-dose vaccinal immunity), and I S2 (infection after waned two-dose vaccinal immunity), see Fig. 1]. Our accompanying interactive online application allows for the exploration of the effect of an even wider range of parameters on immunological and epidemiological outcomes. We stress that the understanding of viral phylodynamics (the intersection of the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of pathogens) is still in its infancy, especially for novel pathogens like SARS-CoV-2. We therefore believe that exploring the resulting uncertainty is key. Understanding the dynamics of different classes of individuals experiencing infections after the waning of natural or vaccinal immunity will be crucial for teasing out drivers of viral immune escape (i.e., the ability of a virus to evolve to evade host immune factors); this is at the heart of our model. Along these lines, and as we highlight in the Research Article, an important area of future work will be to develop phylodynamic models with explicit within-host dynamics ([ 2 ][2]). The other major source of uncertainties is in epidemiological outcomes. In their Letter, Hanage and Russell emphasize the likely epidemiological importance of widespread vaccine deployment. This echoes a conclusion of our Research Article, wherein we stress that short-term dose sparing deployment of a vaccine reduces infections and buys much time in public health planning. However, we also stressed the range of uncertainties that may modulate the longer-term outcomes of this strategy; in particular, less robust immunity could lead to more complex epidemiological and evolutionary outcomes. 1. [↵][3]1. S. Cobey, 2. D. B. Larremore, 3. Y. H. Grad, 4. M. Lipsitch , "Concerns about SARS-CoV-2 evolution should not hold back efforts to expand vaccination," preprint, Harvard University (2021); . 2. [↵][4]1. D. H. Morris et al ., eLife 9, e62105 (2020). [OpenUrl][5][CrossRef][6][PubMed][7] [1]: #ref-1 [2]: #ref-2 [3]: #xref-ref-1-1 "View reference 1 in text" [4]: #xref-ref-2-1 "View reference 2 in text" [5]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DeLife%26rft.volume%253D9%26rft.spage%253De62105%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.7554%252FeLife.62105%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F33174838%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [6]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.7554/eLife.62105&link;_type=DOI [7]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=33174838&link;_type=MED&atom;=%2Fsci%2F372%2F6540%2F354.2.atom
de Leon, N. P., Itoh, K. M., Kim, D., Mehta, K. K., Northup, T. E., Paik, H., Palmer, B. S., Samarth, N., Sangtawesin, S., Steuerman, D. W.
April 16, 2021
Science
The potential of quantum computers to solve problems that are intractable for classical computers has driven advances in hardware fabrication. In practice, the main challenge in realizing quantum computers is that general, many-particle quantum states are highly sensitive to noise, which inevitably causes errors in quantum algorithms. Some noise sources are inherent to the current materials platforms. de Leon et al. review some of the materials challenges for five platforms for quantum computers and propose directions for their solution. Science , this issue p. [eabb2823][1] ### BACKGROUND The past two decades have seen intense efforts aimed at building quantum computing hardware with the potential to solve problems that are intractable on classical computers. Several hardware platforms for quantum information processing (QIP) are under active development. To realize large-scale systems based on these technologies, we must achieve error rates much lower than have been demonstrated thus far in a scalable platform, or devise a new platform entirely. These activities will require major advances in materials science and engineering, new fabrication and synthesis techniques, and new measurement and materials analysis techniques. We identify key materials challenges that currently limit progress in five quantum computing hardware platforms, propose how to tackle these problems, and discuss some new areas for exploration. Addressing these materials challenges will necessitate interdisciplinary approaches from scientists and engineers beyond the current boundaries of the quantum computing field. ### ADVANCES This Review constitutes a roadmap of the current challenges and opportunities for materials science in quantum information processing. We provide a comprehensive review of materials issues in each physical platform by describing the evidence that has led to the current understanding of each problem. For each platform, we present reasons for particular material choices, survey the current understanding of sources of noise and dissipation, describe materials limitations to scaling, and discuss potential new material platforms. Despite major differences among physical implementations in each hardware technology, there are several common themes: Material selection is driven by heterogeneity, impurities, and defects in available materials. Poorly controlled and characterized surfaces lead to noise and dissipation beyond limits imposed by bulk properties. Scaling to larger systems gives rise to new materials problems that are not evident in single-qubit measurements. ### OUTLOOK We identify three principal materials research frontiers of interest in this context. First, understanding the microscopic mechanisms that lead to noise, loss, and decoherence is crucial. This would be accelerated by developing high-throughput methods for correlating qubit measurement with direct materials spectroscopy and characterization. Second, relatively few material platforms for solid-state QIP have been explored thus far, and the discovery of a new platform is often serendipitous. It is thus important to develop materials discovery pipelines that exploit directed, rational material searches in concert with high-throughput characterization approaches aimed at rapid screening for properties relevant to QIP. Third, there are several materials issues that do not affect single-qubit operations but appear as limitations in scaling to larger systems. Many problems faced by these platforms are reminiscent of some that have been addressed over the past five decades for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor electronics and other areas of the semiconductor industry, and approaches and solutions adopted by that industry may be applicable to QIP platforms. Materials issues will be critical to address in the coming years as we transition from noisy intermediate-scale systems to large-scale, fault-tolerant systems. Quantum computing began as a fundamentally interdisciplinary effort involving computer science, information science, and quantum physics; the time is now ripe for expanding the field by including new collaborations and partnerships with materials science. ![Figure][2] Five quantum computing hardware platforms. From top left: Optical image of an IBM superconducting qubit processor (inset: cartoon of a Josephson junction); SEM image of gate-defined semiconductor quantum dots (inset: cartoon depicting the confining potential); ultraviolet photoluminescence image showing emission from color centers in diamond (inset: atomistic model of defects); picture of a surface-electrode ion trap (inset: cartoon of ions confined above the surface); false-colored SEM image of a hybrid semiconductor/superconductor [inset: cartoon of an epitaxial superconducting Al shell (blue) on a faceted semiconducting InAs nanowire (orange)]. IBM IMAGE, CC BY-ND 2.0; SEM IMAGE COURTESY OF S. NEYENS AND M. A. ERIKSSON; PHOTOLUMINESCENCE IMAGE COURTESY OF N. P. DE LEON; FALSE-COLORED SEM IMAGE COURTESY OF C. MARCUS, P. KROGSTRUP, AND D. RAZMADZE Quantum computing hardware technologies have advanced during the past two decades, with the goal of building systems that can solve problems that are intractable on classical computers. The ability to realize large-scale systems depends on major advances in materials science, materials engineering, and new fabrication techniques. We identify key materials challenges that currently limit progress in five quantum computing hardware platforms, propose how to tackle these problems, and discuss some new areas for exploration. Addressing these materials challenges will require scientists and engineers to work together to create new, interdisciplinary approaches beyond the current boundaries of the quantum computing field. [1]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.abb2823 [2]: pending:yes
Science X staff
April 12, 2021
phys.org
Increasing diversity remains a key priority at universities, especially in the wake of mass demonstrations in support of racial equality in 2020 following the death of George Floyd. Many universities are guided by the motivation that diversity enhances student learning, a rationale supported by the U.S. Supreme Court.
Eric Berger
April 11, 2021
Ars Technica
"I see before us two basic choices."
Oliver Milman
March 8, 2021
the Guardian
Rising heat and humidity threatening to plunge much of the world's population into potentially lethal conditions, study finds
Oliver Milman
March 8, 2021
the Guardian
Research was centered on latitudes found between 20 degrees north, a line that cuts through Mexico, Libya and India, to 20 degrees south. Photograph: Noah Seelam/AFP/Getty Images
Investments & Wealth Institute
February 23, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- Like 2020, 2021 continues to shepherd a big transformation of the work environment with a rapid evolution of virtual environments. This...
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