Golden
GitHub

GitHub

Web-based hosting service for software development projects using git.

Github is based around a system of version control called Git. Git is an open-source version control system that was started by Linus Trovalds--the same person who created Linux. Git is similar to other version control systems: Subversion, CVS, and Mercurial and Bazaar to name a few.



Version control systems keep these revisions organized, storing the modifications in a central repository. This allows developers to collaborate, as they can download a new version of the software, make changes, and upload the newest revision. Developers can see these new changes, download them, and contribute.



"Forking" is when developers create a new project based off of another project that already exists. This is an amazing feature that vastly encourages the further development of programs and other projects. If you find a project on GitHub that you'd like to contribute to, you can fork the repo, make the changes you'd like, and release the revised project as a new repo. If the original repository that you forked to create your new project gets updated, you can easily add those updates to your current fork.



When multiple people collaborate on a project, it's hard to keep track revisions--who changed what, when, and where those files are stored. GitHub takes care of this problem by keeping track of all the changes that have been pushed to the repository.



Git has three core features: forking, pull requests and merging. Gregg Pollack of Code School (which just launched a class called TryGit) explains that before GitHub, if you wanted to contribute to an open source project you had to manually download the project's source code, make your changes locally, create a list of changes called a "patch" and then e-mail the patch to the project's maintainer. The maintainer would then have to evaluate this patch, possibly sent by a total stranger, and decide whether to merge the changes.



Even for maintainers who don't end up using the GitHub interface, GitHub can make contribution management easier. "I end up just downloading the patch anyway, or merging from the command line instead of from the merge button," says Isaac Schlueter, the maintainer of the open source development platform Node.js. "But GitHub provides a centralized place where people can discuss the patch."



Besides its public facing open source repositories, GitHub also sells private repositories and on-premise instances of its software for enterprises. These solutions obviously can't take full advantage of GitHub's network effect, but they can take advantage of the collaboration features. That's how GitHub makes money, but it's not alone in this market.



Microsoft is acquiring GitHub. After reports emerged that the software giant was in talks to acquire GitHub, Microsoft is making it official today. This is Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella's second big acquisition, following the $26.2 billion acquisition of LinkedIn two years ago. GitHub was last valued at $2 billion back in 2015, and Microsoft is paying $7.5 billion in stock for the company in a deal that should close later this year.



The question around this acquisition will be what Microsoft does with GitHub in the future. LinkedIn has largely remained separate, with some integrations into Microsoft's Office software. Microsoft's Minecraft acquisition has been managed equally well, and it's likely that GitHub will need to stay as separate as possible to maintain developer trust. However, we could start to see even closer integration between Microsoft's developer tools and the service. At Build last month, Microsoft continued its close work with GitHub by integrating the service into the company's App Center for developers.



"The concept is based around change: what is the right thing to do, what is the wrong thing?" said Tom Preston-Werner, GitHub's co-founder and chief executive. "The efficiency of large groups working together is very low in large enterprises. We want to change that."



Mr. Preston-Werner's own company is something of a proxy for how he sees the world. GitHub has no managers among its 140 employees, for example. "Everyone has management interests," he said. "People can work on things that are interesting to them. Companies should exist to optimize happiness, not money. Profits follow." He does, however, retain his own title and decides things like salaries.



In his blog Mr. Preston-Werner has written about how important it is for companies to expose as much of their inner workings as possible. Another member of GitHub has posted a talk that stresses how companies flourish when people want to work on certain things, not because they are told to.



Companies pay to use GitHub, and it has become an exceptionally popular way for people to do all kinds of software work; in 2012 its number of users jumped to 2.8 million from 1.2 million. The number of "repositories" -- containing code, its documentation, images associated with a project or other work -- increased to 4.6 million from 1.7 million last year.



GitHub's popularity has also made it an important way for companies to recruit engineers, because some of the best people in the business are showing their work or dissecting the work of others inside some of the public pull requests. Its founders and backers, however, want to use the GitHub model to make mobile and enterprise software applications, and possibly much more.



Executives from both companies insisted that GitHub would remain technologically neutral, welcoming developers using any code or any cloud service, rather than a Microsoft walled garden. The proof, analysts say, will be in how GitHub operates under Microsoft ownership.



GitHub has become far more than a platform for software development. It is where developers demonstrate their skills. Software engineers routinely include links to their GitHub projects on their résumés, and companies scout for job candidates on GitHub.

Timeline

November 13, 2019

GitHub launches GitHub Actions to the general public.

GitHub Actions is a system for automating tasks like building, testing, and deploying software. The beta was launched in 2018 and it is now available to everyone.

October 4, 2019

GitHub announces that Rachel Potvin will join as its new vice president of data.



September 18, 2019

Microsoft's GitHub acquires a code analysis tool called Semmle.

June 4, 2018

Microsoft, fully embracing a model it once saw as a threat, said on Monday that it was buying GitHub, an open software platform used by 28 million programmers, for $7.5 billion.

In a blog post, Chris Wanstrath, the company's chief executive and a co-founder, who will become a technical fellow at Microsoft, wrote that when GitHub started up a decade ago, he could have "never imagined" the outcome announced on Monday.

2015

GitHub was last valued at $2 billion back in 2015, and Microsoft is paying $7.5 billion in stock for the company in a deal that should close later this year.

2015

GitHub raised a $250 million round in 2015, led by Sequoia Capital.

2014

The $7.5 billion purchase, an all-stock deal, is the second-largest acquisition Microsoft has made since Mr. Nadella became chief executive in early 2014.

July 14, 2012

Andreessen Horowitz announced a whopping $100 million investment in GitHub this week.

July 2012

In July GitHub received $100 million from the venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz.

February 2008

GitHub was developed by Chris Wanstrath, P. J. Hyett, Tom Preston-Werner and Scott Chacon using Ruby on Rails, and started in February 2008.

People

Name
Role
LinkedIn

Brian Doll

Employee



Daisuke Horie

Employee



Devin Reams

Employee



Elizabeth Naramore

Employee



Garrett Bjerkhoel

Employee



Jared Koumentis

Employee



Joel Glovier

Employee



John Britton

Employee



Lee Reilly

Employee



Melissa Severini

Employee



Mike McQuaid

Employee



Nicci (Ciranna) Arsenault

Employee



PJ Hyett

Founder



Sahra Santosha

Employee



Tom Preston-Werner

Founder



Zachary Adam Kaplan

Employee



Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date









Documentaries, videos and podcasts

Title
Date
Link





Companies

Company
CEO
Location
Products/Services









News

Title
Author
Date
Publisher
Description
Jeffrey Bussgang
January 21, 2020
Harvard Business Review
How businesses shift from selling products to building networks.
Dan Goodin
January 16, 2020
Ars Technica
Attack demoed less than 24 hours after disclosure of bug-breaking certificate validation.
Rita Liao
December 16, 2019
TechCrunch
Hello and welcome back to TechCrunch's China Roundup, a digest of recent events shaping the Chinese tech landscape and what they mean to people in the rest of the world. This week, we are looking at how WeWork's largest rival in China -- UCommune -- is pulling ahead with its initial public offering and GitHub's [...]
Ashley Stewart
December 3, 2019
Business Insider
As more Github employees quit over its ICE contract, Microsoft shareholders are voting on whether to give employees more power over company decisions.
Rosalie Chan
December 1, 2019
Business Insider
From protests at GitHub to outages at Chef to a new Hippocratic License, open source developers are working to protest ICE, labor conditions and more.
Graeme Burton
November 22, 2019
http://www.theinquirer.net
A GitHub repository was recently found leaking confidential data of WeWork customers
Rob Thubron
November 20, 2019
TechSpot
Researchers from Trustwave's SpiderLabs discovered the spam emails, which come with an 'Install Latest Microsoft Windows Update now!' or 'Critical Microsoft Windows Update!' subject line. Microsoft, of course, doesn't send out Windows updates through email.
November 19, 2019
news.google.com
An executable file disguised as a .jpg leads not only to ransomware but also its builder, which can be used to create variants, according to Trustwave
Tom Li
November 14, 2019
IT Business
Today's Hashtag Trending episode talks about the drama between Google and the U.S. government, as well as the friction between Bell and the CRTC. Also, GitHub
Klint Finley
November 13, 2019
Wired
First launched in 2008, the open source hub is launching its first apps for iOS and Android.
Adrian Potoroaca
November 12, 2019
TechSpot
GitHub has released its annual State of the Octoverse report, which looks at code repositories and outlines the general trends in software development. The Microsoft-owned company is currently used by over 40 million developers worldwide, most of which are living...
Chris Merriman
November 7, 2019
http://www.theinquirer.net
GitHub's user survey reveals massive growth in open source
Frederic Lardinois
November 5, 2019
TechCrunch
ZenHub, the popular project management tool that integrates right into GitHub, today announced the launch of Roadmaps. As you can guess from the name, this is a roadmapping feature that allows teams to better plan their projects ahead of time and visualize their status -- all from within GitHub. "We're diving into a brand new [...]
Shona Ghosh
November 1, 2019
Business Insider
GitHub recently renewed a contract with ICE worth some $200,000.
Natasha Lomas
October 30, 2019
TechCrunch
Microsoft-owned Github has removed the APK of an app for organizing political protests in the autonomous community of Catalonia -- acting on a takedown request from Spain's military police (aka the Guardia Civil). As we reported earlier this month supporters of independence for Catalonia have regrouped under a new banner -- calling itself Tsunami Democràtic [...]
Johana Bhuiyan
October 9, 2019
Los Angeles Times
Github employees call on executives to cancel its contract with ICE.
Colin Lecher
October 9, 2019
The Verge
Microsoft-owned GitHub will renew a $200,000 contract with Immigration and Customs Enforcement, despite concerns about the Trump administration's policies, according to a leaked email.
Invalid Date
ComputerWeekly.com
The Microsoft CEO wants organisations to consider Azure as a distributed cloud for next-generation AI applications.
Rosalie Chan
October 4, 2019
Business Insider
Rachel Potvin will join GitHub as vice president of data. Here's how she plans to use what she learned at Google Cloud to make coding more accessible.
Zoe Schiffer
September 20, 2019
The Verge
Engineer Seth Vargo pulled his open source project off Github when he learned Chef, a company that relied on the code, had a government contract with ICE. Chef's operations ground to a halt.
SHOW MORE

References