Republic in Southeast Asia

Indonesia (/ˌɪndəˈniːʒə/ IN-də-NEE-zhə, /-ˈniːziə/ -⁠NEE-zee-ə; Indonesian: [ɪndoˈnesia]), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia [reˈpublik ɪndoˈnesia]), is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, and at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles), the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.

The sovereign state is a presidential, constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces, of which five have special status. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin, copper and gold. Agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan, Singapore and India.

The history of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. It has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam,[18][19] while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese, French and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, and independence movements began to take shape.[20] During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands.

Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN,[a] WTO, IMF and G20. It is also a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.


August 17, 1945

Independence Day



Joko Widodo


Jusuf Kalla

Vice President

Further reading


Documentaries, videos and podcasts




Telkom Indonesia


Reuters Editorial
May 28, 2020
Indonesia will continue to prescribe two anti-malaria drugs for coronavirus patients but monitor their use closely, a spokesman for Indonesia COVID-19 taskforce said on Thursday, after some European nations banned the drug over safety concerns.
The Associated Press
May 28, 2020
Japanese automaker Nissan plans to close auto plants in Spain and Indonesia after sinking into the red for the first time in 11 years as the pandemic squashed global demand and disrupted production.
Krishna N. Das
May 23, 2020
Malaysian telecommunications company Axiata Group Bhd is in talks to buy a smaller rival in Indonesia in a share-swap deal to cut costs and competition in its biggest market, as COVID-19 hammers businesses, its CEO told Reuters.
Reuters Editorial
May 20, 2020
Indonesia is likely to export 12% less palm oil in 2020 than previously expected, an official at the country's Estate Crop Fund (BPDP), a government agency in charge of collecting and managing palm oil export levies said on Wednesday.
Pratima Desai
May 19, 2020
Reduced tin production because of coronavirus lockdowns is likely to result in supplies falling short of demand and ensure prices for the metal used in electronics will outperform those of other base metals this year.
Reuters Editorial
May 15, 2020
Indonesia will require big internet companies to pay value-added taxes (VAT) on sales of digital products and services from July as part of efforts to boost revenue amid the coronavirus pandemic, a tax official said on Friday.
May 14, 2020
• Progress towards establishing Child Labor Monitoring and Remediation Systems (CLMRS) approaches in all countries where Cargill sources cocoa directly by 2025., , • Cargill and International Cocoa Initiative (ICI) expand CLMRS to Ghana. Also introducing the first industry approach to child labor risks in Cameroon., , • In Côte d'Ivoire, Cargill launched new program with Save the Children to promote training and entrepreneurship for youth at risk of child labor., , • In Indonesia, Cargill partne...
Reuters Editorial
May 13, 2020
Indonesia may have swung back to a trade deficit in April as both exports and imports contracted amid restrictions imposed across the globe to contain the spread of the new coronavirus, a Reuters poll showed on Wednesday.
Mei Mei Chu
May 12, 2020
Malaysian palm oil industry leaders warned on Tuesday of depressed prices this year as the coronavirus pandemic cuts global demand and boosts inventories, with the biggest producer warning of painful cost cuts.
Bernadette Christina
May 8, 2020
Indonesia is likely to delay plans to raise bio-content in palm oil-based biodiesel to 40%, and keep going with an already ambitious 30% content, a senior official said, amid speculation that low crude prices could force a government re-think.
May 7, 2020
Sugar mills have already dispatched 3.7 million tonnes out of around 4.1 million tonnes of contracts signed for exports in the 2019/20 marketing year ending on September 30
By Stacy Liberatore For
May 7, 2020
Mail Online
Computer simulations reveal climate change could awaken an ancient Indian Ocean El Niño by 2100, but the phenomenon could occur as early as 2050 if the current warming trends continue.
Gayatri Suroyo
May 5, 2020
Indonesia's economy grew at its weakest pace since 2001 in the first quarter, slower than expected, as the coronavirus pandemic halted business activity in Southeast Asia's largest economy.
Manish Singh
May 5, 2020
Ninja Van, a Singapore-based logistics startup, has secured an additional $279 million in fresh funding as it works to scale its operations to keep up with the surge in e-commerce deliveries in six Southeast Asian countries. Europe's GeoPost, Facebook co-founder Eduardo Saverin's B Capital Group, Monk's Hill Ventures, Carmenta, Golden Gate Ventures Growth Fund, Intouch [...]
Justine Calma
May 4, 2020
The Verge
Seawalls are expensive and can upend the economy of a coastal community. Tsunami mitigation parks, on the other hand, can offer protection while allowing access to the water.
Fanny Potkin
May 2, 2020
Tokopedia, Indonesia's largest e-commerce platform, said on Saturday it was investigating claims that the details of millions of its users had been leaked online by a hacker.
Brendan Borrell
April 30, 2020
Stopping this pandemic will depend on scientists' ability to form partnerships across borders. President Trump has only made us weaker at this game.
Catherine Shu
April 27, 2020
Oriente, a Hong Kong-based startup that develops tech infrastructure for digital credit and other online financial services, has raised $50 million for its ongoing Series B round. The funding was led by Peter Lee, co-chairman of Henderson Land, one of Hong Kong's largest property developers, with participation from investors including website development platform Launched [...]
April 24, 2020
, , , , • Indonesia has released one of the most ambitious plans to date to combat plastic pollution and waste, in a show of multistakeholder collaboration, , • In contrast to "business as usual", the action plan envisions a System Change Scenario in which the archipelagic nation will avoid consuming more than one million tonnes of avoidable plastics per year and double current recycling capacity, , • Public, private, and civil society changemakers in Indonesia are working to implement the action...
Allie Goldstein
April 15, 2020
Scientific American Blog Network
We have protected areas for wildlife; we need to protect ecosystems whose death could release massive amounts of CO 2 as well


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