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Netherlands

Netherlands

Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe.

Despite government-encouraged emigration after World War II, which prompted some 500,000 persons to leave the country, the Netherlands is today one of the world's most densely populated countries. Although the population as a whole is "graying" rapidly, with a high percentage over age 65, Amsterdam has remained one of the liveliest centres of international youth culture. There, perhaps more than anywhere else in the country, the Dutch tradition of social tolerance is readily encountered. Prostitution, "soft-drug" (marijuana and hashish) use, and euthanasia are all legal but carefully regulated in the Netherlands, which was also the first country to legalize same-sex marriage.

History

The History of the Netherlands is the history of seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta on the North Sea in northwestern Europe. Records begin with the four centuries during which the region formed a militarized border zone of the Roman Empire. This came under increasing pressure from Germanic peoples moving westwards. As Roman power collapsed and the Middle Ages began, three dominant Germanic peoples coalesced in the area, Frisians in the north and coastal areas, Low Saxons in the northeast, and the Franks in the south.

Middle ages

During the Middle Ages, the descendants of the Carolingian dynasty came to dominate the area and then extended their rule to a large part of Western Europe. The region of the Netherlands therefore became part of Lower Lotharingia within the Frankish Holy Roman Empire. For several centuries, lordships such as Brabant, Holland, Zeeland, Friesland, Guelders and others held a changing patchwork of territories. There was no unified equivalent of the modern Netherlands.

By 1433, the Duke of Burgundy had assumed control over most of the lowlands territories in Lower Lotharingia; he created the Burgundian Netherlands which included modern Belgium, Luxembourg, and a part of France. The Catholic kings of Spain took strong measures against Protestantism, which polarized the peoples of present-day Belgium and the Netherlands. The subsequent Dutch revolt led to splitting the Burgundian Netherlands into a Catholic French and Dutch-speaking "Spanish Netherlands" (approximately corresponding to modern Belgium and Luxembourg), and a northern "United Provinces", which spoke Dutch and were predominantly Protestant with a Catholic minority. It became the modern Netherlands. In the Dutch Golden Age, which had its zenith around 1667, there was a flowering of trade, industry, the arts and the sciences. A rich worldwide Dutch empire developed and the Dutch East India Company became one of the earliest and most important of national mercantile companies based on entrepreneurship and trade.

Eighteenth Century

During the eighteenth century, the power, wealth and influence of the Netherlands declined. A series of wars with the more powerful British and French neighbours weakened it. The UK seized the North American colony of New Amsterdam, and renamed it "New York". There was growing unrest and conflict between the Orangists and the Patriots. The French Revolution spilled over after 1789, and a pro-French Batavian Republic was established in 1795-1806. Napoleon made it a satellite state, the Kingdom of Holland (1806-1810), and later simply a French imperial province. After the collapse of Napoleon in 1813-15, an expanded "United Kingdom of the Netherlands" was created with the House of Orange as monarchs, also ruling Belgium and Luxembourg. The King imposed unpopular Protestant reforms on Belgium, which revolted in 1830 and became independent in 1839.

After an initially conservative period, following the introduction of the 1848 constitution; the country became a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch. Modern -day Luxembourg became officially independent from the Netherlands in 1839, but a personal union remained until 1890. Since 1890, it is ruled by another branch of the House of Nassau. The Netherlands was neutral during the First World War, but during the Second World War, it was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany.

World War Two

The Nazis, including many collaborators, rounded up and killed almost all of the country's Jewish population. When the Dutch resistance increased, the Nazis cut off food supplies to much of the country, causing severe starvation in 1944-45. In 1942, the Dutch East Indies were conquered by Japan, but prior to this; the Dutch destroyed the oil wells for which Japan was desperate. Indonesia proclaimed its independence from the Netherlands in 1945, followed by Suriname in 1975.

Post-World War Two

The post-war years saw rapid economic recovery (helped by the American Marshall Plan), followed by the introduction of a welfare state during an era of peace and prosperity. The Netherlands formed a new economic alliance with Belgium and Luxembourg, the Benelux, and all three became founding members of the European Union and NATO. In recent decades, the Dutch economy has been closely linked to that of Germany, and is highly prosperous. The four countries adopted the Euro on 1 January 2002, along with eight other EU member states.

Timeline

2015
Starbucks paid €25.7 million to the Netherlands in 2015, and an investigation into Ikea is underway.

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Corinne Reichert
May 13, 2021
CNET
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May 13, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
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May 12, 2021
WebWire
Royal Philips (NYSE: PHG, AEX: PHIA), a global leader in health technology, today celebrated 130 years of innovation, collaboration, and social responsibility. During its rich history since being founded on May 15, 1891, in Eindhoven in the Netherlands, the company has continuously reinvented itself to remain relevant to society. Today, Philips is a leading health technology company with a purpose to improve the lives of 2.5 billion people a year by 2030 through meaningful innovation. ...
MarketsandMarkets
May 7, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- According to MarketsandMarkets, the "Feed Additives Market by Type (Amino Acids, Phosphates, Vitamins, Acidifiers, Carotenoids, Enzymes,...
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Karina Shah
May 6, 2021
New Scientist
A survey of 14 and 15-year-olds in Sweden, England and the Netherlands shows that the most popular children tend to be those who are the oldest in the year group
Science X staff
May 5, 2021
phys.org
A survey study of adolescents in Europe suggests that students who are older relative to their peers are more likely to be popular in their school class. Danelien van Aalst of the University of Groningen and Frank van Tubergen of Utrecht University present these findings in the open-access journal PLOS ONE on May 5, 2021.
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/PRNewswire/ -- fit20 has been touting the benefits of its personal training method for over a decade, and a recent study confirms that strength gains in...
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May 5, 2021
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May 4, 2021
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May 4, 2021
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ABC News
May 1, 2021
www.abc.net.au
The small country has a population of 17.4 million people and it's rising, so it's looking at 3D printing technology to help it fabricate enough homes.
de Vrieze, J.
April 30, 2021
Science
Science 's COVID-19 reporting is supported by the Heising-Simons Foundation. The Eurovision Song Contest, known best for its over-the-top performances and outrageous costumes, has a new feature this year: It will be the site of a massive field experiment to see whether concerts and other events can be held safely in the middle of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nine rehearsals and televised shows, staged 18-22 May in Rotterdam, Netherlands, will each be attended by 3500 visitors who will have to show a recent negative SARS-CoV-2 test to get in. Those admitted can choose to drop social distancing and go without face masks--precautions currently mandatory in indoor public spaces in the Netherlands, where most people remain unvaccinated. The contest will be the last of 20 experimental events, together dubbed Fieldlab, set up by the Dutch event industry in collaboration with scientists and the Dutch government. But Fieldlab has come under fire as events have grown bigger and COVID-19 cases in the Netherlands surged. A music festival for 10,000 people on 24 April was banned by the host city, Breda, after more than 300,000 people signed a petition opposing it. And last week, more than 350 researchers criticized the studies in a letter that complained of a lack of peer review, an intransparent setup, and ethical failings. "Basic conditions and standards for scientific research do not appear to have been met," the authors wrote. "A festival with 10,000 visitors ... is not risk free, even with entrance testing," says Caspar van Lissa, a methodologist at Utrecht University, who wrote the open letter. "If it were, there would be no need to do the study." Fieldlab's goal is "to determine what's an acceptable risk for visitors, event organizers, and administrators," says Bas Kolen, a security researcher at the Delft University of Technology involved in the study. The first two events--a theater show and a business conference, each with 500 attendees--took place in February. The researchers found that, with the virus prevalence at that time, pre-event testing and additional measures such as ventilation could keep attendees' risk at about one infection per 100,000 people per hour--the same risk they would run by staying home. Bigger events followed, including a soccer match between the Dutch and Latvian national teams with 5000 fans. The studies didn't need approval from a medical ethics committee because they didn't meet the legal definition of medical research, a panel at Radboud University Medical Center ruled. But the authors of the open letter say Fieldlab should have followed ethical guidelines for research in the social and behavioral sciences, which stipulate that participants give their informed consent and researchers assess the potential drawbacks for individuals and society. "Not a single behavioral scientist is involved. If they were, this would have never happened," says psychologist Denny Borsboom of the University of Amsterdam. Andreas Voss, an infectious disease specialist at Radboud University who leads the project, notes that the social science guidelines are not mandatory and that tickets came with conditions saying Fieldlab could not be held liable for infections. The critics also question Fieldlab's statement that the events are, on the whole, safe. Participants are requested to take a second COVID-19 test 5 days after the event, and at least 25 people have tested positive, although for most of them it's hard to determine whether they were infected at the event. Fieldlab's main gauge of risk isn't the number of infections detected, however, but the number predicted by a model that incorporates data on ventilation and people's behavior, including mask wearing and how many superficial or close, extended contacts they have at the event, measured using trackers and video analyses. Kolen, whose team specializes in calculating the risk of floods, concedes the model has many assumptions and limitations. It assumes testing before each event will identify 95% of infectious individuals, for example, and it does not take into account the possibility that an infectious person happens to be a social butterfly, or sheds very large amounts of virus. "Those are characteristics we would like to explore in a later stage," Kolen says. "It's what everyone does who is modeling infectious diseases," Voss adds. But to Van Lissa, "These are exactly the factors that you should empirically investigate to know how safe an event is." In response to the criticism, the Fieldlab team has published most of its protocols and a description of the risk model. Kolen says he supports "a healthy debate about its value." Some scientists see value in the project. Although "the scale and the timing" of the events might be "unfortunate," virologist Marion Koopmans of Erasmus Medical Center tweeted last week, "the basic design is relevant, and the data collected will provide input for modelers for years." Whether Eurovision will welcome visitors is now unclear: Its organizers say they are closely following public sentiment and epidemiological trends before making a definitive decision.
Arizton Advisory & Intelligence
April 29, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- In-depth analysis and data-driven insights on the impact of COVID-19 included in this Western Europe and Nordic data center market report. The...
ReportsnReports
April 29, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
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Microsure
April 29, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- Microsure, a leading Dutch developer of micro-surgical robotics, today announced the closing of a financing round of € 2.7 million, as an...
GATT Technologies
April 29, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- Hemostatic sealant solutions innovator GATT Technologies announced today the successful first-in-man of its lead product GATT-Patch, used to...
MarketsandMarkets
April 28, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- According to a research report "Hydrogen Aircraft Market by Power Source (Hydrogen Combustion, Hydrogen Fuel Cell), Platform (Unmanned Aerial...
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