Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe.

Despite government-encouraged emigration after World War II, which prompted some 500,000 persons to leave the country, the Netherlands is today one of the world's most densely populated countries. Although the population as a whole is "graying" rapidly, with a high percentage over age 65, Amsterdam has remained one of the liveliest centres of international youth culture. There, perhaps more than anywhere else in the country, the Dutch tradition of social tolerance is readily encountered. Prostitution, "soft-drug" (marijuana and hashish) use, and euthanasia are all legal but carefully regulated in the Netherlands, which was also the first country to legalize same-sex marriage.


The History of the Netherlands is the history of seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta on the North Sea in northwestern Europe. Records begin with the four centuries during which the region formed a militarized border zone of the Roman Empire. This came under increasing pressure from Germanic peoples moving westwards. As Roman power collapsed and the Middle Ages began, three dominant Germanic peoples coalesced in the area, Frisians in the north and coastal areas, Low Saxons in the northeast, and the Franks in the south.

Middle ages

During the Middle Ages, the descendants of the Carolingian dynasty came to dominate the area and then extended their rule to a large part of Western Europe. The region of the Netherlands therefore became part of Lower Lotharingia within the Frankish Holy Roman Empire. For several centuries, lordships such as Brabant, Holland, Zeeland, Friesland, Guelders and others held a changing patchwork of territories. There was no unified equivalent of the modern Netherlands.

By 1433, the Duke of Burgundy had assumed control over most of the lowlands territories in Lower Lotharingia; he created the Burgundian Netherlands which included modern Belgium, Luxembourg, and a part of France. The Catholic kings of Spain took strong measures against Protestantism, which polarized the peoples of present-day Belgium and the Netherlands. The subsequent Dutch revolt led to splitting the Burgundian Netherlands into a Catholic French and Dutch-speaking "Spanish Netherlands" (approximately corresponding to modern Belgium and Luxembourg), and a northern "United Provinces", which spoke Dutch and were predominantly Protestant with a Catholic minority. It became the modern Netherlands. In the Dutch Golden Age, which had its zenith around 1667, there was a flowering of trade, industry, the arts and the sciences. A rich worldwide Dutch empire developed and the Dutch East India Company became one of the earliest and most important of national mercantile companies based on entrepreneurship and trade.

Eighteenth Century

During the eighteenth century, the power, wealth and influence of the Netherlands declined. A series of wars with the more powerful British and French neighbours weakened it. The UK seized the North American colony of New Amsterdam, and renamed it "New York". There was growing unrest and conflict between the Orangists and the Patriots. The French Revolution spilled over after 1789, and a pro-French Batavian Republic was established in 1795-1806. Napoleon made it a satellite state, the Kingdom of Holland (1806-1810), and later simply a French imperial province. After the collapse of Napoleon in 1813-15, an expanded "United Kingdom of the Netherlands" was created with the House of Orange as monarchs, also ruling Belgium and Luxembourg. The King imposed unpopular Protestant reforms on Belgium, which revolted in 1830 and became independent in 1839.

After an initially conservative period, following the introduction of the 1848 constitution; the country became a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch. Modern -day Luxembourg became officially independent from the Netherlands in 1839, but a personal union remained until 1890. Since 1890, it is ruled by another branch of the House of Nassau. The Netherlands was neutral during the First World War, but during the Second World War, it was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany.

World War Two

The Nazis, including many collaborators, rounded up and killed almost all of the country's Jewish population. When the Dutch resistance increased, the Nazis cut off food supplies to much of the country, causing severe starvation in 1944-45. In 1942, the Dutch East Indies were conquered by Japan, but prior to this; the Dutch destroyed the oil wells for which Japan was desperate. Indonesia proclaimed its independence from the Netherlands in 1945, followed by Suriname in 1975.

Post-World War Two

The post-war years saw rapid economic recovery (helped by the American Marshall Plan), followed by the introduction of a welfare state during an era of peace and prosperity. The Netherlands formed a new economic alliance with Belgium and Luxembourg, the Benelux, and all three became founding members of the European Union and NATO. In recent decades, the Dutch economy has been closely linked to that of Germany, and is highly prosperous. The four countries adopted the Euro on 1 January 2002, along with eight other EU member states.



Starbucks paid €25.7 million to the Netherlands in 2015, and an investigation into Ikea is underway.



Further reading


Documentaries, videos and podcasts





Omar Faridi
July 13, 2020
Crowdfund Insider
Port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands and large shipping firms to conduct blockchain enabled pilot for efficiently handling containers.
July 9, 2020
At Cargill, managing climate impact is a top priority, and the company is making progress in its operations with new renewable energy projects. Today, Cargill is announcing ten new global renewable energy projects, most of which will be online in the next year. Cargill currently uses 15 different renewable energy sources around the world, including wind and solar power. These renewable energy projects represent a vital component of Cargill's expanding renewable energy portfolio and progre...
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Shell has a complex Anglo-Dutch holding structure with a tax residency and headquarters in the Netherlands and a registered office in Britain
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There are about 9,000 workers at Ijmuiden. FNV said an agreement has also been reached on the company structure.
JD Alois
June 26, 2020
Crowdfund Insider
Click HERE to find out ⭐ Alternative Finance Report: SMEs Raised €2.7 Billion in The Netherlands. | Crowdfund Insider: Global Fintech News, including Crowdfunding, Blockchain and more.
June 18, 2020
The Times of India
Europe News: The statue of Gandhi on the Churchilllaan in Amsterdam was covered with red paint and the pedestal has 'racist' and an abbreviation for an expletive
June 15, 2020
About | Advertise | Contact | Disclaimer | News | The Daily Deal Newsletter by FinSMEs is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
Jagmeet Singh
June 13, 2020
NDTV Gadgets 360
Apple Maps has enabled the Nearby feature in India to let users find nearby attractions. Apple has also expanded real-time transit information on its Maps app across Canada, Sweden, and the Netherlands.
BBC News
June 11, 2020
BBC News
It comes after the Anglo-Dutch giant dropped a plan to make its base the Netherlands in 2018.
June 10, 2020
Company attracts three experienced industry executives to lead preclinical and clinical development as well as finance and operations
Reuters Editorial
May 26, 2020
A group of around 100 striking worker have blocked the doors at Tata Steel's main Ijmuiden plant at the Netherlands, ANP news agency reported on Tuesday.
Adam Satariano and Claire Moses
May 22, 2020
A Dutch court ruled a woman violated Europe's General Data Protection Regulation after refusing to take down photos of her grandchildren from social media.
James Rogers
May 21, 2020
Fox News
A court in the Netherlands has ordered a grandmother to remove photos of her grandchildren from Facebook under a European Union (EU) data protection law, according to a report.
Reuters Editorial
May 18, 2020
Dutch labour unions and the works council of Tata Steel in the Netherlands on Monday disclosed that the chairman of the subsidiary has been dismissed and vowed to fight against 1,000 proposed job cuts.
May 16, 2020
India News, Breaking News, Entertainment News |
If you are single and live in The Netherlands, you can find a 'sex buddy during the coronavirus lockdown as the Dutch government has issued new guidance to such people seeking intimacy.
Jane Wakefield
May 12, 2020
BBC News
The competition attracted lots of entries after the official contest was cancelled.
May 12, 2020
Consumers have voted Rabobank as the most sustainable bank in the Netherlands. The Sustainable Brand Index, Europe's largest sustainability brand survey, made the announcement on Tuesday, May 12. Growing a better world together According to the Sustainable Brand Index (SBI), Rabobank's top performance is notable because consumers have rated Rabobank as more sustainable than the "green" banks in the Netherlands. "We are grateful to be recognized for the efforts we make together with our...
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Factory-CRO Group, a medical technology contract research organization formed by the merger of BBA, Factory CRO, Five Corners, and MileStone Research Organization, is pleased to announce its rebranding as Avania.
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May 7, 2020
BBC News
The lockdown has led to huge growth in the number of people buying garden seeds.
Nina Chestney
May 8, 2020
Hydrogen has long been touted as a clean alternative to fossil fuels. Now, as major economies prepare green investments to kickstart growth, advocates spy a golden chance to drag the niche energy into the mainstream of a post-pandemic world.


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