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Netherlands

Netherlands

Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe.

Despite government-encouraged emigration after World War II, which prompted some 500,000 persons to leave the country, the Netherlands is today one of the world's most densely populated countries. Although the population as a whole is "graying" rapidly, with a high percentage over age 65, Amsterdam has remained one of the liveliest centres of international youth culture. There, perhaps more than anywhere else in the country, the Dutch tradition of social tolerance is readily encountered. Prostitution, "soft-drug" (marijuana and hashish) use, and euthanasia are all legal but carefully regulated in the Netherlands, which was also the first country to legalize same-sex marriage.

History

The History of the Netherlands is the history of seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta on the North Sea in northwestern Europe. Records begin with the four centuries during which the region formed a militarized border zone of the Roman Empire. This came under increasing pressure from Germanic peoples moving westwards. As Roman power collapsed and the Middle Ages began, three dominant Germanic peoples coalesced in the area, Frisians in the north and coastal areas, Low Saxons in the northeast, and the Franks in the south.

Middle ages

During the Middle Ages, the descendants of the Carolingian dynasty came to dominate the area and then extended their rule to a large part of Western Europe. The region of the Netherlands therefore became part of Lower Lotharingia within the Frankish Holy Roman Empire. For several centuries, lordships such as Brabant, Holland, Zeeland, Friesland, Guelders and others held a changing patchwork of territories. There was no unified equivalent of the modern Netherlands.

By 1433, the Duke of Burgundy had assumed control over most of the lowlands territories in Lower Lotharingia; he created the Burgundian Netherlands which included modern Belgium, Luxembourg, and a part of France. The Catholic kings of Spain took strong measures against Protestantism, which polarized the peoples of present-day Belgium and the Netherlands. The subsequent Dutch revolt led to splitting the Burgundian Netherlands into a Catholic French and Dutch-speaking "Spanish Netherlands" (approximately corresponding to modern Belgium and Luxembourg), and a northern "United Provinces", which spoke Dutch and were predominantly Protestant with a Catholic minority. It became the modern Netherlands. In the Dutch Golden Age, which had its zenith around 1667, there was a flowering of trade, industry, the arts and the sciences. A rich worldwide Dutch empire developed and the Dutch East India Company became one of the earliest and most important of national mercantile companies based on entrepreneurship and trade.

Eighteenth Century

During the eighteenth century, the power, wealth and influence of the Netherlands declined. A series of wars with the more powerful British and French neighbours weakened it. The UK seized the North American colony of New Amsterdam, and renamed it "New York". There was growing unrest and conflict between the Orangists and the Patriots. The French Revolution spilled over after 1789, and a pro-French Batavian Republic was established in 1795-1806. Napoleon made it a satellite state, the Kingdom of Holland (1806-1810), and later simply a French imperial province. After the collapse of Napoleon in 1813-15, an expanded "United Kingdom of the Netherlands" was created with the House of Orange as monarchs, also ruling Belgium and Luxembourg. The King imposed unpopular Protestant reforms on Belgium, which revolted in 1830 and became independent in 1839.

After an initially conservative period, following the introduction of the 1848 constitution; the country became a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch. Modern -day Luxembourg became officially independent from the Netherlands in 1839, but a personal union remained until 1890. Since 1890, it is ruled by another branch of the House of Nassau. The Netherlands was neutral during the First World War, but during the Second World War, it was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany.

World War Two

The Nazis, including many collaborators, rounded up and killed almost all of the country's Jewish population. When the Dutch resistance increased, the Nazis cut off food supplies to much of the country, causing severe starvation in 1944-45. In 1942, the Dutch East Indies were conquered by Japan, but prior to this; the Dutch destroyed the oil wells for which Japan was desperate. Indonesia proclaimed its independence from the Netherlands in 1945, followed by Suriname in 1975.

Post-World War Two

The post-war years saw rapid economic recovery (helped by the American Marshall Plan), followed by the introduction of a welfare state during an era of peace and prosperity. The Netherlands formed a new economic alliance with Belgium and Luxembourg, the Benelux, and all three became founding members of the European Union and NATO. In recent decades, the Dutch economy has been closely linked to that of Germany, and is highly prosperous. The four countries adopted the Euro on 1 January 2002, along with eight other EU member states.

Timeline

2015
Starbucks paid €25.7 million to the Netherlands in 2015, and an investigation into Ikea is underway.

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Kim Loohuis
September 16, 2021
ComputerWeekly.com
Research shows educational establishments in the Netherlands are becoming favoured targets of cyber criminals and administrators are underestimating the risks
Livemint
August 20, 2021
mint
Adding to it, Mahindra wrote New York, Central Park. Dabba wali - referring to the Mumbai's unique business model Dabbawalas, lunch delivery system
Diederik Baazil
August 18, 2021
phys.org
Marjan Minnesma cheered along with her fellow climate activists in May when a judge ordered Royal Dutch Shell Plc to drastically slash its carbon dioxide emissions. It was the first time a company had been held legally accountable for its planet-warming pollution.
Jagmeet Singh
August 14, 2021
NDTV Gadgets 360
Oppo A16s has been launched with triple rear cameras and a waterdrop-style display notch. The new Oppo phone comes as an upgrade to the Oppo A16, with NFC connectivity support and a higher RAM and storage configuration.
Kim Loohuis
August 11, 2021
ComputerWeekly.com
Report by National Coordinator for Counterterrorism and Security says the Netherlands' digital resilience has improved, but is still insufficient
Science X staff
August 10, 2021
phys.org
Flinders University's Professor Patrick Hesp and fellow coastal scientists Christa van IJzendoorn, Sierd de Vries and Caroline Hallin from the Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands have measured the vertical translation of the dune toe along the Holland coast, and found it has increased a remarkable 7-to-8 times greater than the measured sea level rise.
August 9, 2021
WebWire
ING announced that it will redeem two series of outstanding perpetual securities: the €750 million ING Perpetual Securities II (NL0000113587) and the €1 billion ING Perpetual Securities III (NL0000116127), both on the optional redemption date of 30 September 2021., , , , Due to the expiration of the grandfathering period effective 1 January 2022, the two series of perpetual securities would no longer qualify as grandfathered Additional Tier 1 capital. The two series of perpetual securities wer...
Mike Butcher
August 6, 2021
TechCrunch
While Amsterdam garners the lion's share of attention in the Netherlands tech ecosystem, the not-so-far-away region around Utrecht has its fair share of tech startups and investors, as is evidenced by our latest survey of locals, below. Area ecosystem wranglers such as StartupUtrecht, UtrechtInc, Holland Startup, Utrecht Community and others bring startups, scaleups, corporates, angels, [...]
Mike Butcher
August 6, 2021
TechCrunch
While Amsterdam garners the lion's share of attention in the Netherlands tech ecosystem, the not-so-far-away region around Utrecht has its fair share of tech startups and investors, as is evidenced by our latest survey of locals, below. Area ecosystem wranglers such as StartupUtrecht, UtrechtInc, Holland Startup, Utrecht Community and others bring startups, scaleups, corporates, angels, [...]
Jennifer Rankin in Brussels
August 4, 2021
the Guardian
Rewilding of forests and 'saturated' habitats in Germany and Belgium behind growing population
Omar Faridi
August 4, 2021
Crowdfund Insider
Netherlands based ABN Amro to offer sustainability discount on mortgage interest rates for energy-efficient homes
Willem Marx
July 29, 2021
Scientific American
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Mike Butcher
July 28, 2021
TechCrunch
Something very interesting is going on with supply chains, and has been for a while. But it's clear the pandemic has accelerated the trend. Tech startups are once again cutting out the middle man, but this time at the supply chain level. The opportunity is to replace supply chains with platforms - it's the 'platformization [...]
Mike Butcher
July 28, 2021
TechCrunch
Something very interesting is going on with supply chains, and has been for a while. But it's clear the pandemic has accelerated the trend. Tech startups are once again cutting out the middle man, but this time at the supply chain level. The opportunity is to replace supply chains with platforms - it's the 'platformization [...]
Dagomar Degroot
July 27, 2021
phys.org
In recent weeks, catastrophic floods overwhelmed towns in Germany and the Netherlands, inundated subway tunnels in China, swept through northwestern Africa and triggered deadly landslides in India and Japan. Heat and drought fanned wildfires in the North American West and Siberia, contributed to water shortages in Iran, and worsened famines in Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya.
July 26, 2021
Moneycontrol
Coronavirus News LIVE updates: The cumulative vaccine doses administered so far has reached 43.51 crore under the nationwide vaccination drive.
MARCIA DUNN AP Aerospace Writer
July 20, 2021
ABC News
Jeff Bezos is about to soar on his space travel company's first flight with people on board
By MARCIA DUNN
July 20, 2021
AP NEWS
VAN HORN, Texas (AP) -- Jeff Bezos is about to soar on his space travel company's first flight with people on board.The founder of Blue Origin as well as Amazon on Tuesday will become the second billionaire to ride his own rocket.
Science X staff
July 19, 2021
phys.org
Record rainfall has caused swollen rivers to burst their banks and wash away homes and other buildings in western Europe--leading to more than 90 casualties and over 1000 people missing. Data from the Copernicus Sentinel-1 mission are being used to map flooded areas to help relief efforts.
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