The Robot Operating System (ROS) is a set of software libraries and tools that help build robot applications. It includes drivers, algorithms, and developer tools. It's open source. It is a tool offered by Open Robotics. Open Robotics freely distributes their work -- product, software, hardware, or documentation -- under an open source license.
ROS can be used to support a wide variety of robots, including low-cost platforms like the TurtleBot and LEGO Mindstorms.
Melodic Morenia is the 12th official ROS release. It is supported on Ubuntu Artful and Bionic, along with Debian Stretch.
Robot Operating System (ROS or ros) is robotics middleware (i.e. collection of software frameworks for robot software development). Although ROS is not an operating system, it provides services designed for a heterogeneous computer cluster such as hardware abstraction, low-level device control, implementation of commonly used functionality, message-passing between processes, and package management. Running sets of ROS-based processes are represented in a graph architecture where processing takes place in nodes that may receive, post and multiplex sensor data, control, state, planning, actuator, and other messages. Despite the importance of reactivity and low latency in robot control, ROS itself is not a real-time OS (RTOS). It is possible, however, to integrate ROS with real-time code. The lack of support for real-time systems has been addressed in the creation of ROS 2.0, a major revision of the ROS API which will take advantage of modern libraries and technologies for core ROS functionality and add support for real-time code and embedded hardware. Software in the ROS Ecosystem can be separated into three groups: language-and platform-independent tools used for building and distributing ROS-based software; ROS client library implementations such as roscpp, rospy, and roslisp; packages containing application-related code which uses one or more ROS client libraries.