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Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows

Family of operating systems produced for personal computers, servers, smartphones and embedded devices

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows NT and Windows Embedded; these may encompass subfamilies, e.g. Windows Embedded Compact (Windows CE) or Windows Server. Defunct Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows Mobile and Windows Phone.

Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer (PC) market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh (eventually settled in court in Microsoft's favor in 1993). On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones. In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25% that of Android devices sold. This comparison however may not be fully relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows (that are comparable to competitors) show one third market share, similar to that for end user use.

As of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets, smartphones and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console.


December 12, 2006
Microsoft Windows raises a $10,000,000 series B round from Genesis Partners, Opus Capital and Storm Ventures.
September 12, 2005
Microsoft Windows raises a $4,020,000 series A round from Genesis Partners and Storm Ventures.

Funding Rounds


Further Resources



July 16, 2021
The Hindu
The hacking tool vendor, named Candiru, created and sold a software exploit that can penetrate Windows.
July 16, 2021
The Indian Express
The hacking tool vendor, named Candiru, created and sold a software exploit that can penetrate Windows, one of many intelligence products sold by a secretive industry that finds flaws in common software platforms for their clients
July 15, 2021
Candiru created and sold a software exploit that can penetrate Windows
Stephen Pritchard
July 7, 2021
We look at NVMe-oF, which extends fast flash across the network - what it is, how it works, use cases, benefits and limitations, and the suppliers of NVMe-oF products
Alex Scroxton
May 12, 2021
Four critical RCE vulnerabilities put users of various Microsoft products at risk, and should be patched right away
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