A high-level, interpreted programming language that enables interactive web pages.

JavaScript is a high-level, interpreted programming language that conforms to the ECMAScript specification.

JavaScript has curly-bracket syntax, dynamic typing, prototype-based object-orientation, and first-class functions.

Alongside HTML and CSS, JavaScript is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web. JavaScript enables interactive web pages and is an essential part of web applications. The vast majority of websites use it, and major web browsers have a dedicated JavaScript engine to execute it.

As a multi-paradigm language, JavaScript supports event-driven, functional, and imperative (including object-oriented and prototype-based) programming styles. It has APIs for working with text, arrays, dates, regular expressions, and the DOM, but the language itself does not include any I/O, such as networking, storage, or graphics facilities. It relies upon the host environment in which it is embedded to provide these features.

Initially only implemented client-side in web browsers, JavaScript engines are now embedded in many other types of host software, including server-side in web servers and databases, and in non-web programs such as word processors and PDF software, and in runtime environments that make JavaScript available for writing mobile and desktop applications, including desktop widgets.

The terms Vanilla JavaScript and Vanilla JS refer to JavaScript not extended by any frameworks or additional libraries. Scripts written in Vanilla JS are plain JavaScript code.

Although there are similarities between JavaScript and Java, including language name, syntax, and respective standard libraries, the two languages are distinct and differ greatly in design.


December 4, 1995
First appeared

First released in Netscape Navigator 2.0 beta 3



Brendan Eich


Further reading


How does Javascript affect SEO?



Sept 09, 2019

Documentaries, videos and podcasts





Richard Speed
June 17, 2021
ISS solar array installation overran after a good old 'off and on again'
Gareth Halfacree
June 17, 2021
Though it's mostly just looking to make its cars safer, rather than hide them
June 16, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- Blackbird, bridging the gap in middle-school CS curriculum, today announced Blackbird student and teacher achievements for the past year....
GrapeCity, Inc.
June 10, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- GrapeCity, a global provider of award-winning enterprise software development tools, announced that its JavaScript spreadsheet solution,...
otto by DEVCON
June 8, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- otto [formerly DEVCON Detect Inc.], a B2B security software startup innovating JavaScript vulnerability testing, monitoring and protection, has...
Profound Logic Software, Inc.
June 8, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- Profound Logic ( announces their latest upgrade to Profound.js, a Node.js-based low-code platform, designed for...
James Walker
June 7, 2021
WebAssembly is a binary-instruction format that can be executed in web browsers. It provides a sandboxed execution environment with near-native performance, eliminating most of the overheads associated with JavaScript on web pages.
Suzanne Humphries
May 28, 2021
Google has now rolled out a new JavaScript compiler, dubbed Sparkplug, for its V8 JavaScript engine in Chrome. Sparkplug's engineers assure it'll create a faster web experience, and that it does so by "cheating."
May 26, 2021
Search Engine Land
For technical SEO practitioners and site developers alike, we can glean a lot from the announcements the Chrome team made about the availability of technologies and extensions to their current products in the "What's new for The Web Platform" keynote.
Simon Sharwood
May 27, 2021
It's a pathfinder for Toyota's planned self-driving moon buggy, and tiny compared to Optimus Prime
Richard Speed
May 26, 2021
'This is why we can't have nice things'
Kylie Robison
May 16, 2021
Business Insider
In the last 18 months, Sentry rewrote its entire frontend codebase from JavaScript to TypeScript, and the firm recommends it to others.
Richard Speed
May 12, 2021
Company continues to make losses without troubling space
May 12, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- Blackbird today announced the official release of the world's first educational version of JavaScript. Blackbird's Educational Version of...
Benj Edwards
May 10, 2021
How-To Geek
Mozilla Firefox lets you trigger bookmarks with a custom keyword in the address bar. With this feature and a custom bookmarklet, you can quickly search a site using Google, Bing, or DuckDuckGo. Here's how.
Katyanna Quach
May 6, 2021
Coming to a computer near you ... this decade ... maybe
Ricard Argelaguet
May 3, 2021
Nature Biotechnology
The development of single-cell multimodal assays provides a powerful tool for investigating multiple dimensions of cellular heterogeneity, enabling new insights into development, tissue homeostasis and disease. A key challenge in the analysis of single-cell multimodal data is to devise appropriate strategies for tying together data across different modalities. The term 'data integration' has been used to describe this task, encompassing a broad collection of approaches ranging from batch correction of individual omics datasets to association of chromatin accessibility and genetic variation with transcription. Although existing integration strategies exploit similar mathematical ideas, they typically have distinct goals and rely on different principles and assumptions. Consequently, new definitions and concepts are needed to contextualize existing methods and to enable development of new methods. As the number of single-cell experiments with multiple data modalities increases, Argelaguet and colleagues review the concepts and challenges of data integration.
Ro'ee Gilron
May 3, 2021
Nature Biotechnology
Neural recordings using invasive devices in humans can elucidate the circuits underlying brain disorders, but have so far been limited to short recordings from externalized brain leads in a hospital setting or from implanted sensing devices that provide only intermittent, brief streaming of time series data. Here, we report the use of an implantable two-way neural interface for wireless, multichannel streaming of field potentials in five individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) for up to 15 months after implantation. Bilateral four-channel motor cortex and basal ganglia field potentials streamed at home for over 2,600 h were paired with behavioral data from wearable monitors for the neural decoding of states of inadequate or excessive movement. We validated individual-specific neurophysiological biomarkers during normal daily activities and used those patterns for adaptive deep brain stimulation (DBS). This technological approach may be widely applicable to brain disorders treatable by invasive neuromodulation. An implanted device in the brain enables wireless neural monitoring and stimulation for up to 15 months following implantation.
Akira Cortal
April 29, 2021
Nature Biotechnology
Because of the stochasticity associated with high-throughput single-cell sequencing, current methods for exploring cell-type diversity rely on clustering-based computational approaches in which heterogeneity is characterized at cell subpopulation rather than at full single-cell resolution. Here we present Cell-ID, a clustering-free multivariate statistical method for the robust extraction of per-cell gene signatures from single-cell sequencing data. We applied Cell-ID to data from multiple human and mouse samples, including blood cells, pancreatic islets and airway, intestinal and olfactory epithelium, as well as to comprehensive mouse cell atlas datasets. We demonstrate that Cell-ID signatures are reproducible across different donors, tissues of origin, species and single-cell omics technologies, and can be used for automatic cell-type annotation and cell matching across datasets. Cell-ID improves biological interpretation at individual cell level, enabling discovery of previously uncharacterized rare cell types or cell states. Cell-ID is distributed as an open-source R software package. Cell-ID facilitates the analysis of cell-type heterogeneity and cell identity across multiple samples at the single-cell level.
James Walker
April 22, 2021
Node.js has launched its latest major version. Released in April 2021, v16 is the new "current" release. In October 2021, it will be promoted to the Long Term Support (LTS) release with maintenance continuing into 2024.
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