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A high-level, interpreted programming language that enables interactive web pages.

JavaScript is a high-level, interpreted programming language that conforms to the ECMAScript specification.

JavaScript has curly-bracket syntax, dynamic typing, prototype-based object-orientation, and first-class functions.

Alongside HTML and CSS, JavaScript is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web. JavaScript enables interactive web pages and is an essential part of web applications. The vast majority of websites use it, and major web browsers have a dedicated JavaScript engine to execute it.

As a multi-paradigm language, JavaScript supports event-driven, functional, and imperative (including object-oriented and prototype-based) programming styles. It has APIs for working with text, arrays, dates, regular expressions, and the DOM, but the language itself does not include any I/O, such as networking, storage, or graphics facilities. It relies upon the host environment in which it is embedded to provide these features.

Initially only implemented client-side in web browsers, JavaScript engines are now embedded in many other types of host software, including server-side in web servers and databases, and in non-web programs such as word processors and PDF software, and in runtime environments that make JavaScript available for writing mobile and desktop applications, including desktop widgets.

The terms Vanilla JavaScript and Vanilla JS refer to JavaScript not extended by any frameworks or additional libraries. Scripts written in Vanilla JS are plain JavaScript code.

Although there are similarities between JavaScript and Java, including language name, syntax, and respective standard libraries, the two languages are distinct and differ greatly in design.


December 4, 1995
First appeared

First released in Netscape Navigator 2.0 beta 3


Further reading

Documentaries, videos and podcasts



Gareth Corfield
September 14, 2021
First try had a habit of melting its mirrors, apparently
August 11, 2021
Human activity is causing unprecedented changes in our climate - that's the main message in the latest report from the IPCC. In this month's Climate Check, Ben Rich explains why a warmer world will also be a wetter one.
Katyanna Quach
July 30, 2021
Crew not in danger, NASA insists
Dan Goodin
July 2, 2021
Ars Technica
Researchers uncovered 9 apps that used a sneaking method to pilfer credentials.
Richard Speed
June 17, 2021
ISS solar array installation overran after a good old 'off and on again'
Gareth Halfacree
June 17, 2021
Though it's mostly just looking to make its cars safer, rather than hide them
June 16, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- Blackbird, bridging the gap in middle-school CS curriculum, today announced Blackbird student and teacher achievements for the past year....
GrapeCity, Inc.
June 10, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- GrapeCity, a global provider of award-winning enterprise software development tools, announced that its JavaScript spreadsheet solution,...
otto by DEVCON
June 8, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- otto [formerly DEVCON Detect Inc.], a B2B security software startup innovating JavaScript vulnerability testing, monitoring and protection, has...
Profound Logic Software, Inc.
June 8, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- Profound Logic ( announces their latest upgrade to Profound.js, a Node.js-based low-code platform, designed for...
James Walker
June 7, 2021
WebAssembly is a binary-instruction format that can be executed in web browsers. It provides a sandboxed execution environment with near-native performance, eliminating most of the overheads associated with JavaScript on web pages.
Suzanne Humphries
May 28, 2021
Google has now rolled out a new JavaScript compiler, dubbed Sparkplug, for its V8 JavaScript engine in Chrome. Sparkplug's engineers assure it'll create a faster web experience, and that it does so by "cheating."
May 26, 2021
Search Engine Land
For technical SEO practitioners and site developers alike, we can glean a lot from the announcements the Chrome team made about the availability of technologies and extensions to their current products in the "What's new for The Web Platform" keynote.
Simon Sharwood
May 27, 2021
It's a pathfinder for Toyota's planned self-driving moon buggy, and tiny compared to Optimus Prime
Richard Speed
May 26, 2021
'This is why we can't have nice things'
Kylie Robison
May 16, 2021
Business Insider
In the last 18 months, Sentry rewrote its entire frontend codebase from JavaScript to TypeScript, and the firm recommends it to others.
Richard Speed
May 12, 2021
Company continues to make losses without troubling space
May 12, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- Blackbird today announced the official release of the world's first educational version of JavaScript. Blackbird's Educational Version of...
Benj Edwards
May 10, 2021
How-To Geek
Mozilla Firefox lets you trigger bookmarks with a custom keyword in the address bar. With this feature and a custom bookmarklet, you can quickly search a site using Google, Bing, or DuckDuckGo. Here's how.
Katyanna Quach
May 6, 2021
Coming to a computer near you ... this decade ... maybe
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