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Donetsk is a city in Ukraine founded in 1869 by John Hughes.

Donetsk is a city in Eastern Ukraine. According to the legislation of Ukraine - the administrative center of the Donetsk region. De facto since April 2014 - the capital of the so-called Donetsk People's Republic. The fifth city of Ukraine in terms of population, the number of which as of January 1, 2014 was 949,825 people.

Donetsk is located in the eastern part of Ukraine and is the administrative center of the Donetsk region. Since April 2014, controlled by the Donetsk People's Republic and considered its capital.

During the armed conflict in the east of the country, the Ukrainian authorities moved the institutions of the Donetsk Regional State Administration, first to Mariupol, and in October 2014 to Kramatorsk, which is currently the administrative center of the Donetsk region.

Initially, until 1923, the city was called Yuzovka. This name was given to him in honor of the founder of the city, businessman John Hughes.

Since April 1924, according to the decision of the VUTsVK, he received the name Stalin. In 1961, the Stalin region again received its name, received by the river Seversky Donets, and the center began to be called Donetsk. Since 1955, a city with the same name exists on the territory of the Russian Federation, in the Rostov region, and, unlike the "Ukrainian brother", it is located on the Donets River. In turn, Ukrainian Donetsk is not even in the river basin.

There is another version that for several months in 1923 the city was called Trotsk, in honor of Trotsky. It first sounded in the novel "Privy Councilor of the Rain" by Uspensky V., but there is no documentary evidence of such a version. The area of ​​the city is 385 sq. km. Donetsk is one of the cities that are part of the Donetsk agglomeration, which is considered the largest industrial hub of Ukraine. The city is located in the southern part of the Donetsk Ridge in the central part of Donbass. The city is surrounded by hills, rivers, lakes and small forests. The Sea of ​​Azov is located 95 km. south of the city.

There are two reservoirs in Donetsk: the Donetsk Sea and the Nizhnekalmiusskoye Reservoir; 4 rivers also flow through the city: Bakhmutka, Kalmius, Cherepashkina and Asmolovka. As for the climate, here it is temperate continental and the average annual temperature reaches about +9°C. In January 1950, an absolute minimum was recorded (-32.2 ° C), and in August 2010 - an absolute maximum (+39.1 ° C). summers are mostly dry and hot, while winters are cold and changeable. Warm weather sets in around mid-April and persists for 170-180 days, the period when there are no frosts is 190-200 days. From November, the first cold weather begins, sometimes with snowfall and frost, but the snow melts very quickly.

There are 3 academies, 5 public and 5 private universities, 6 colleges, 11 institutes and 14 colleges in Donetsk. The oldest and largest among them are Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk National University, Donetsk Medical University and Donetsk National University of Economics and Trade. M. I. Tugan-Baranovsky. As for the system of general secondary education, the majority of schoolchildren study in Russian, while only 21% of schoolchildren study in Ukrainian. The number of secondary schools is as follows: secondary school - 2; 1-2 steps - 38; 1-3 steps - 116; stations for young technicians - 2; DYUSSH - 7; children's and youth cubes - 54. In terms of growth rates of industrial production, Donetsk ranks first, in terms of volume - second.

The economic potential of Donetsk is 193 industrial enterprises, 383 construction organizations, 357 enterprises of foreign economic activity. Donetsk is characterized by a diversified specialization of industry, which is combined with the financial and developed transport economy of the city. The industry of the city is represented by almost all branches of the national economy, but still the majority is coal, chemical, metallurgical industries, as well as heavy engineering.

In recent years, the light, woodworking, food industries and mechanical engineering have been actively developing. More than 119 thousand people are employed at the enterprises of the city. Business magazine Forbes in 2012 recognized Donetsk as the best Ukrainian city capable of doing business according to five criteria: purchasing power, economic sustainability, human capital, comfort and infrastructure. The main square of the city is Lenin Square, the main street is Artem Street. In total, there are 2200 streets, avenues, boulevards, squares in the city - 21. The city has the Donetsk Scientific Center of the National Academy of Sciences, it consists of 6 institutes and many other research projects.



Further reading


Documentaries, videos and podcasts


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