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3D cell culture

3D cell culture

3D cell culture techniques use engineering to provide 3D environments for cells to grow. Cells can be attached to or embedded in scaffolds engineered from biological or synthetic materials or grown in conditions that promote cells to self-organize into 3D structures.

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Charlie Hilton
Charlie Hilton edited on 24 Nov, 2020
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3D cell culture

3D cell culture techniques use engineering to provide 3D environments for cells to grow. Cells can be attached to or embedded in scaffolds engineered from biological or synthetic materials or grown in conditions that promote cells to self-organize into 3D structures.

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Edits on 3 Dec, 2018
Meredith Hanel
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Liver organoids were initially generated to study liver development. They were generated using pluripotent stem cell (PSC) derived hepatocytes cultured with mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial cells on a plate coated with Matrigel . These liver organoids contained blood vessels which connected with host mouse when transplanted. Mice with drug-induced liver failure recovered when they received these transplanted liver buds.

Edits on 25 Sep, 2018
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 25 Sep, 2018
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While mammalian cells have traditionally been grown on two-dimensional tissue culture dishes, 3D cell culture techniques use engineering to provide 3D environments for cells to grow. Cells can be attached to or embedded in scaffolds engineered from biological or synthetic materials or grown in conditions that promote cells to self-organize into 3D structures. 3D cell culture techniques are used to create tissue models for studying disease and testing treatments and also to engineer tissues engineer tissues for transplantation.

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Edits on 14 Sep, 2018
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 14 Sep, 2018
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The initial approach in 3D tissue engineering was to seed cells onto a prefabricated scaffold. Various scaffolds have been developed from synthetic polymers such as poly-lactic acid, poly-glycolic acid, poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid and poly-caprolactone upon which cells can be seeded . Replicating the microstructural characteristics is a challenge with this approach. Decellularized scaffolds, prepared by removing cells from natural structures like tissues, organs and plants have been used to support the growth of mammalian cells.

Edits on 8 Sep, 2018
Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 8 Sep, 2018
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Compared with natural polymers, synthetic polymers have more consistent chemical and mechanical properties . Mechanical properties are better for synthetic polymers, and when conjugated with peptides or adhesive proteins to provide biomimetic cues, cells can interact with the biomaterial in a physiologically relevant manner . Growth factors can provide necessary cues for proper growth of tissues. Calcium phosphateCalcium phosphate, tri-calcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, poly-lactic acid (PLA), poly-glycolic acid (PGA), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and poly-caprolactone (PCL) are used in bioprinting. PLA, PGA and PCL are biocompatible, biodegradable, strong and can accelerate bone repair and inhibit inflammation .

Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 8 Sep, 2018
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3D cellular aggregates can form without a scaffold. Hanging-drop technique, invented by Robert Koch in the 1880s, is the culturing of cells in suspended droplets which forces them to aggregate . 3D spheroids can be generated and have been scaled up to 384-hanging-drop arrays. Liquid overlay can generate 3D microtissues on non-adherent surfaces . There are size limitations since nutrients and oxygen must diffuse into the microtissues, and necrotic centers can occur in large spheroids. Micro-molds and patterned microplates control size and consistency . More advanced materials and methods involve spinner flasks, rotating wall vessel bioreactors and microfluidic systems . In addition, physical stimuli like ultrasound traps, electric fields, magnetic forces or affinity between avidin and biotin are used to generate heterospheroids made of more than one cell typecell type .

Edits on 7 Sep, 2018
Dawson Sewell
Dawson Sewell edited on 7 Sep, 2018
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The drive to develop 3D cell culture comes from the understanding that cells grown in culture in 2D dishes do not receive all of the environmental cues received in a living 3D environment. Cells look and behave differently in 2D and 3D systems . Differences in the ways cells behave and communicate with each other in 2D cultures versus livinganimal organismsmodels is thought to underlie some of the discrepancies in research data obtained throughbetween cell cell culturecultures versusand animal models .

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Hans Clevers’ research group at the Hubrecht Institute, The Netherlands, developed miniguts, intestine organoids with outgrowths areas that mimic the environment of the intestinal crypt, known as a stem cell niche that supports the survival of intestinal stem cells . Clevers developed a personalized drug test for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) using miniguts derived from a patients own cells . CF mutations affect mucous-secreting cells, affecting the lungs and the intestines . There are many different mutations causing CF and certain CF drugs may work on only a subset of patients so growing miniguts with from individual CF patients allows the testing of expensive drugs that insurers may be reluctant to cover . Clevers is part of the group that founded the non-profit Hubrecht Organoid Technology (HUB) to market applications .

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3D printing can be used to arrange living cells and non-cellular material in 3D space to mimic human tissue . Computer aided design (CAD) technologies combined with MRI or CT scans allow bioprinting of complex structures at nanoscale to microscale scale economically and efficiently . When the aim is to transplant bioprinted tissues or organs into a host, suitable bioreactors that mimic the living environment will be needed for incubation while tissues fuse and mature prior to implantation .

Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 7 Sep, 2018
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Hans Clevers’ research group at the Hubrecht Institute, The NetherlandsNetherlands, developed miniguts, intestine organoids with outgrowths areas that mimic the environment of the intestinal crypt, known as a stem cell niche that supports the survival of intestinal stem cells . Clevers developed a personalized drug test for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) using miniguts derived from a patients own cells . CF mutations affect mucous-secreting cells, affecting the lungs and the intestines . There are many different mutations causing CF and certain CF drugs may work on only a subset of patients so growing miniguts with from individual CF patients allows the testing of expensive drugs that insurers may be reluctant to cover . Clevers is part of the group that founded the non-profit Hubrecht Organoid Technology (HUB) to market applications .

Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 6 Sep, 2018
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Hydrogels are porous, soft, polymeric networks which absorb large amounts of water or biological fluids and can simulate living tissue . These can be made with synthetic polymers and natural biomaterials like collagen, fibrin, gelatin, alginate, hyaluronic acidhyaluronic acid, chitosan, agarose, dextran and Matrigel . Substances like collagen, fibrin and hyaluronic acid are components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the natural scaffold cells are surrounded by in living tissues . Matrigel is the trade name for a solubilized extracellular matrix prepared from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) mouse sarcoma, and it is widely used in 2D and 3D cell culture .

Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 6 Sep, 2018
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Neural differentiation occurs spontaneously in embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture when certain signalling pathways are inhibited . Serum-free floating culture of embryoid body (EB)-like aggregates with quick re-aggregation (SFEBq) is a technique for generating brain organoids in the lab developed by Yoshiki Sasai at the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, JapanJapan . Human and mouse ESCs cells are isolated and re-aggregated and then maintained in serum-free growth medium with low levels of growth factors. When transferred onto adhesion plates, they self-organize, forming a lumen and various brain structures.

Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 6 Sep, 2018
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The stem cell niche, the place where stem cells reside within tissues, is a place where stem cells interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM), other cells and growth factors and receive biophysical and biochemical signals that control behaviors such as migration, cell divisioncell division and differentiation into specialized tissues . Control of stem cell fate through engineered microniches that mimic aspects of the native stem cell niches are important for the advancement of tissue engineering and stem cell therapies .

Carla Faraguna
Carla Faraguna approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 6 Sep, 2018
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Hans CleversHans Clevers’ research group at the Hubrecht Institute, The Netherlands, developed miniguts, intestine organoids with outgrowths areas that mimic the environment of the intestinal crypt, known as a stem cell niche that supports the survival of intestinal stem cells . Clevers developed a personalized drug test for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) using miniguts derived from a patients own cells . CF mutations affect mucous-secreting cells, affecting the lungs and the intestines . There are many different mutations causing CF and certain CF drugs may work on only a subset of patients so growing miniguts with from individual CF patients allows the testing of expensive drugs that insurers may be reluctant to cover . Clevers is part of the group that founded the non-profit Hubrecht Organoid Technology (HUB) to market applications .

Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 6 Sep, 2018
Edits made to:
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3D cellular aggregates can form without a scaffold. Hanging-drop technique, invented by Robert KochRobert Koch in the 1880s, is the culturing of cells in suspended droplets which forces them to aggregate . 3D spheroids can be generated and have been scaled up to 384-hanging-drop arrays. Liquid overlay can generate 3D microtissues on non-adherent surfaces . There are size limitations since nutrients and oxygen must diffuse into the microtissues, and necrotic centers can occur in large spheroids. Micro-molds and patterned microplates control size and consistency . More advanced materials and methods involve spinner flasks, rotating wall vessel bioreactors and microfluidic systems . In addition, physical stimuli like ultrasound traps, electric fields, magnetic forces or affinity between avidin and biotin are used to generate heterospheroids made of more than one cell type .

Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 6 Sep, 2018
Edits made to:
Article (+13/-13 characters)
Article

Neural differentiation occurs spontaneously in embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture when certain signalling pathways are inhibited . Serum-free floating culture of embryoid body (EB)-like aggregates with quick re-aggregation (SFEBq) is a technique for generating brain organoids in the lab developed by Yoshiki SasaiYoshiki Sasai at the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Japan . Human and mouse ESCs cells are isolated and re-aggregated and then maintained in serum-free growth medium with low levels of growth factors. When transferred onto adhesion plates, they self-organize, forming a lumen and various brain structures.

Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 6 Sep, 2018
Edits made to:
Article (+15/-15 characters)
Article

Hans Clevers’ research group at the Hubrecht Institute, The Netherlands, developed miniguts, intestine organoids with outgrowths areas that mimic the environment of the intestinal crypt, known as a stem cell niche that supports the survival of intestinal stem cells . Clevers developed a personalized drug test for Cystic FibrosisCystic Fibrosis (CF) using miniguts derived from a patients own cells . CF mutations affect mucous-secreting cells, affecting the lungs and the intestines . There are many different mutations causing CF and certain CF drugs may work on only a subset of patients so growing miniguts with from individual CF patients allows the testing of expensive drugs that insurers may be reluctant to cover . Clevers is part of the group that founded the non-profit Hubrecht Organoid Technology (HUB) to market applications .

Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 6 Sep, 2018
Edits made to:
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In 1989, mouse mammary cultures grown on a laminin-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), derived from murine tumor, but known as Matrigel today, differentiated into self-organized alveolar structures . The self-organizing capacity of cells on the laminin-rich ECM, Matrigel allows the generation of organoidsorganoids, 3D organ-like structures . Organoids can be generated from primary tissue, cell lines, adult stem cells (ASCs) and pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Intestine, colon, liver, pancreatic, lung, stomach, brain, retina, prostate, fallopian tube, mammary gland, taste buds, salivary glands and oesophagus have been developed. They are used in disease modelling, drug testing, biobanking and host-pathogen interaction studies.

Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 6 Sep, 2018
Edits made to:
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3D printing3D printing can be used to arrange living cells and non-cellular material in 3D space to mimic human tissue . Computer aided design (CAD) technologies combined with MRI or CT scans allow bioprinting of complex structures at nanoscale to microscale scale economically and efficiently . When the aim is to transplant bioprinted tissues or organs into a host, suitable bioreactors that mimic the living environment will be needed for incubation while tissues fuse and mature prior to implantation .

Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 6 Sep, 2018
Edits made to:
Article (+4/-4 characters)
Article

In 1989, mouse mammary cultures grown on a laminin-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), derived from murine tumor, but known as Matrigel today, differentiated into self-organized alveolar structures . The self-organizing capacity of cells on the laminin-rich ECM, Matrigel allows the generation of organoids, 3D organ-like structures . Organoids can be generated from primary tissue, cell lines, adult stem cells (ASCs) and pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Intestine, colon, liver, pancreatic, lunglung, stomach, brain, retina, prostate, fallopian tube, mammary gland, taste buds, salivary glands and oesophagus have been developed. They are used in disease modelling, drug testing, biobanking and host-pathogen interaction studies.

Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 6 Sep, 2018
Edits made to:
Article (+13/-13 characters)
Article

Neural differentiation occurs spontaneously in embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture when certain signalling pathways are inhibited . Serum-free floating culture of embryoid body (EB)-like aggregates with quick re-aggregation (SFEBq) is a technique for generating brain organoids in the lab developed by Yoshiki Sasai at the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Japan . Human and mouse ESCs cells are isolated and re-aggregated and then maintained in serum-free growth mediumgrowth medium with low levels of growth factors. When transferred onto adhesion plates, they self-organize, forming a lumen and various brain structures.

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