Robert Koch, in full Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch, (born Dec. 11, 1843, Clausthal, Hannover [now Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Ger.]—died May 27, 1910, Baden-Baden, Ger.), German physician and one of the founders of bacteriology. He discovered the anthrax disease cycle (1876) and the bacteria responsible for tuberculosis (1882) and cholera (1883). For his discoveries in regard to tuberculosis, he received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1905.