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Paper

Paper

Material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon, drawing or for packaging

PAPER , sheet or roll of pressed cellulose fibers . It has a wide range of uses: used for packaging , writing , wall covering and as cladding . The first material that was used for writing in antiquity was papyrus ( the name of the paper later came from this word ). , adopted in many European languages \u200b\ u200b- “ papier ”, “ paper ” , etc. e .). It was made from the plant of the same name 5500 years ago . Papyrus stems were soaked , cut into narrow strips , laid out in several layers at right angles to one another , beaten until a sticky juice is released and then pressed into webs . The modern paper making process originated about 2,000 years ago in China . It consists of grinding wood fibers , straw , waste paper , cotton rags and some herbs to a state of pulp under the action of ALKALINE , e.g. SODIUM HYDROXIDE ( caustic soda ) . The lignin and other non - cellulosic substances are then removed and the resulting residue bleached . After washing and adding filler to provide a smooth and even surface , the pulp is dewatered on a wire mesh where a thin layer is formed. canvas and dry . _ The best grades of paper are made from chemical pulp prepared in the manner described above , while newsprint and other cheap grades of paper are made from mechanically produced wood pulp without chemical treatment and consist of wood fibres .

Modern ways of making paper differ little from those that were used 2000 years ago . The slurry of cellulose fibers is produced by whipping the mixture of fibers in water , after which they strain the fibers . Wet webs are pressed and heated to remove water and then subjected to further cleaning . The figure shows the modern papermaking process in schematic form . The raw logs go to the paper mill . Then they are sent to the debarker , which has chisels that strip the bark without damaging the wood . _ Then the wood can go straight to the crusher . This machine has rotating blades that cut the wood into pieces about 3 mm thick . _ _ From there the wood shavings go to the digester ( Kamira autoclave ) . Here , in the process of treatment with boiling chemicals , a pulp is obtained (" chemical cellulose "), after which the chemicals are extracted in a special device - extractor . An alternative is to feed the bark -free wood into a mechanical pulper , a type of grinder . These two streams are then mixed in the bleaching apparatus , pass into the stage pulper , and from there for further processing in a Jordan refiner . The deinked and bleached waste paper , ready for shredding , is also converted into pulp in a pulper equipped with a rotating multi -blade impeller and then added to the bulk in the refiner . The whole pulp is then fed into the separator , which is a filter , where non -fibrous inclusions are separated , and from there to the headbox . There , the required consistency of the pulp is established , after which it is fed at a controlled speed through the inlet device onto a flat surface moving at a high speed . speed phosphor bronze wire mesh . _ Here the vacuum boxes remove most of the water and a thin web is formed . The extracted water is filtered . The water and the screened pulp can be put back into circulation . _ The canvas is pressed to the required thickness by press rollers . and then dried on drying cylinders . _ This procedure ends with calendering . Paper waste is fed back to the pulper . And finally get a finished roll of paper .

Timeline

February 15, 2022
Paper was invented from hemp by the Chinese, around 100 B.C. Later, they started creating paper using other forms of plant fibers such as bamboo and tree bark. Prior to the invention of paper, papyrus served as a writing surface.
February 15, 2022
Paper is a thin sheet material. Nowadays, it is usually produced by machines however initially it was hand manufactured. It is usually made of cellulose fibres formed on a wire screen from water suspension. We use paper daily, whether at home for jotting down the shopping list, at school, or work for filing reports. The form surrounds us literally, but how much do you know about it? Here is a collection of 25 facts about paper.
February 15, 2022
The Chinese also are credited with being the first people to use paper currency and toilet paper.
February 15, 2022
The production of the paper focuses on softwood trees that account for approximately eighty-five percent of the form. The wood pulp in softwood trees contains cellulose fibers and is most preferred since they can produce adequate strength for paper.
June 30, 2021
Paper raises a $100,000,000 series C round.

Further Resources

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date

Exponential Growth: How Folding Paper Can Get You to the Moon

Web

April 19, 2012

News

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January 9, 2019
WebWire
Which Chinese dynasty invented paper as we know it today? What happens to paper after it's recycled? How can you make a more aerodynamic paper airplane? Watch this video to learn the answers to these and other paper trivia questions. The video was created as part of the "Power to the Paper" campaign, a joint project by the Paper and Packaging Board and Mental Floss. The goal of the campaign is to educate consumers about the benefits of paper by highlighting the many ways paper makes...
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