Computer science

Computer science

Computer science is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation as well as the practical concerns for designing and building computers.

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Elizabeth A. Thomson
May 5, 2021
In a feat worthy of a laboratory conceived by J.K. Rowling, MIT researchers and colleagues have turned a "magic" material composed of atomically thin layers of carbon into three useful electronic devices. Normally, such devices, all key to the quantum electronics industry, are created using a variety of materials that require multiple fabrication steps. The MIT approach automatically solves a variety of problems associated with those more complicated processes.
Bondurant Mixson & Elmore LLP
May 3, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- Twenty leading experts, in data privacy and cryptography along with lawyers from Bondurant Mixson & Elmore filed an amicus brief in support of...
Nicole Bogart
April 23, 2021
The authors behind the Dead Sea Scrolls, famous for containing the oldest manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), have long eluded historians and scientists alike. But artificial intelligence technology has now unveiled two possible scribes.
Walsh, E. D., Jung, W., Lee, G.-H., Efetov, D. K., Wu, B.-I., Huang, K.- F., Ohki, T. A., Taniguchi, T., Watanabe, K., Kim, P., Englund, D., Fong, K. C.
April 23, 2021
Josephson junctions are simple superconducting devices comprising an insulator or semiconductor separating two superconducting regions. They form the workhorse of superconducting technologies and are exquisitely sensitive to magnetic field. One long-sought proposal has been to use these devices to detect light. Walsh et al. have realized a photosensitive Josephson junction based on graphene that is capable of sensing single infrared photons. Such a photosensitive Josephson junction is expected to operate as a high-speed, low-power consumption optical interconnect for communication between superconducting-based supercomputers and quantum computers. Science , this issue p. [409][1] Josephson junctions are superconducting devices used as high-sensitivity magnetometers and voltage amplifiers as well as the basis of high-performance cryogenic computers and superconducting quantum computers. Although device performance can be degraded by the generation of quasiparticles formed from broken Cooper pairs, this phenomenon also opens opportunities to sensitively detect electromagnetic radiation. We demonstrate single near-infrared photon detection by coupling photons to the localized surface plasmons of a graphene-based Josephson junction. Using the photon-induced switching statistics of the current-biased device, we reveal the critical role of quasiparticles generated by the absorbed photon in the detection mechanism. The photon sensitivity will enable a high-speed, low-power optical interconnect for future superconducting computing architectures. [1]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.abf5539
Sangeetha Devi Dundoo
April 20, 2021
The Hindu
Yeebo is a marketplace that attempts to digitally connect craftspersons with potential buyers
Science X staff
April 20, 2021
Flushing a toilet can generate large quantities of microbe-containing aerosols depending on the design, water pressure or flushing power of the toilet. A variety of pathogens are usually found in stagnant water as well as in urine, feces and vomit. When dispersed widely through aerosolization, these pathogens can cause Ebola, norovirus that results in violent food poisoning, as well as COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2.
April 19, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- CoreMedia, developer of the agile content management and digital experience platform, CoreMedia Content Cloud, today announced its 25th...
Science X staff
April 19, 2021
With its more than 40 million articles in 301 different languages, Wikipedia is one of the largest human collaboration efforts in history. One of the main pillars on which this wish to bring together the sum of all knowledge is based is the achievement of a neutral space. However, several studies suggest that the site suffers from a persistent gender bias as regards both content and the composition of its community. An analysis of the gender gap in the Spanish-language version of Wikipedia by an interdisciplinary team at the UOC has revealed that only 11.6% of its registered editors are women.
Levin, D., Raab, N., Pinto, Y., Rothschild, D., Zanir, G., Godneva, A., Mellul, N., Futorian, D., Gal, D., Leviatan, S., Zeevi, D., Bachelet, I., Segal, E.
April 16, 2021
We have only just begun to examine the multitude of bacteria associated with other organisms. Levin et al. sampled the feces of 184 wild animals, including fish, birds, and mammals, from four different continents to survey the diversity of gut bacteria (see the Perspective by Lind and Pollard). They discovered more than 1000 previously undescribed bacterial species and identified factors that correlate with the composition, diversity, and functional content of the microbiota. Supporting the association of specific bacteria with animal lifestyle, they identified proteases, some previously undescribed, from the gut of griffon vultures that can break down toxins that may be present in their carrion diet. Science , this issue p. [eabb5352][1]; see also p. [238][2] ### INTRODUCTION Animals in the wild are able to subsist on pathogen-infected and poisonous food and show immunity to various diseases. These characteristics may be contributed largely by the animals' microbiota. However, compared with the human microbiota, which has been extensively studied, the microbiota of animals in the wild has received less focus. In this study, we aimed to construct and functionally annotate a comprehensive database of microbiota sampled from wild animals in their natural habitats. Several considerations guided our sample collection and analysis strategy. First, we focused on sampling of animals from the wild, despite the many challenges that such sampling poses, because captivity was shown to alter the microbiome of several animal species. Second, to obtain a broad representation of wild animals, we sampled in four continents and from a diversity of animals with varied traits and feeding patterns. We hand-curated traits for each species, including dietary adaptations, activity hours, and social structures, allowing us to systematically study the relationships between microbiota composition and host phenotype. Finally, we adapted a metagenomic genome assembly pipeline and annotated the assembled genomes taxonomically and functionally, resulting in a broad collection of genomes that represents the microbial landscape of wildlife. ### RATIONALE It is becoming evident that animal microbiomes are a rich source of biological functions that may have biotechnological impact, including antibiotics, industrial enzymes, and immunomodulators. Moreover, animals in the wild exhibit adaptations such as the safe consumption of rotting, pathogen-infected meat and poisonous plants; production of highly potent toxins; bioluminescence; specific immunity to various diseases and microbial pathogens; regenerative capabilities; and, in some species, extreme longevity. Some of these adaptations, such as toxin production and bioluminescence, are conferred, at least in part, by microbial symbionts living in and on the animal. However, despite these examples, a comprehensive view of the association between an animal's traits and its microbiota is still lacking. The microbiota of wild animals is also a natural reservoir for pathogens of both animals and humans, the mapping of which could elucidate the timing and routes of their transmission into the human population, as in the case of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, mapping the microbiota of wild animals could also help in conservation efforts. ### RESULTS Our de novo constructed genomes, 75% of which belong to previously undescribed bacterial species, significantly improve the mapping of metagenomic sequencing reads from our animal samples. Notably, the rate at which new genomes are discovered is far from asymptote. We enriched many bacterial phyla with unknown species and found that some bacterial clades have distinctive functional properties relative to other bacteria in the same phylum. We found that the bacterial landscape differs between animal classes and discovered animal class-;specific clusters of coexisting bacteria. We identified multiple pathways and orthologs that are significantly enriched in specific animal traits and showed that the functional landscape is associated with these traits. Some of these functions suggest intriguing new roles and properties of wildlife microbiomes. Moreover, we identified previously undescribed proteases in the microbiota of carrion eaters and show experimentally that they are capable of metabolizing bacterial toxins. ### CONCLUSION Overall, we present a large-scale annotated bacterial genome database of predominantly unknown species that were extracted from the guts of animals in the wild, identified a multitude of microbial patterns that are associated with the traits and taxonomy of these animals, and highlight its potential as a largely untapped resource for the discovery of new industrial enzymes and therapeutics. ![Figure][3] A maximum likelihood alignment-based phylogenetic tree of the 1209 genomes assembled in this study. The inner and outer colored rings denote bacterial phylum and host class, respectively. Clades of previously undescribed genomes are colored dark red. Animals in the wild are able to subsist on pathogen-infected and poisonous food and show immunity to various diseases. These may be due to their microbiota, yet we have a poor understanding of animal microbial diversity and function. We used metagenomics to analyze the gut microbiota of more than 180 species in the wild, covering diverse classes, feeding behaviors, geographies, and traits. Using de novo metagenome assembly, we constructed and functionally annotated a database of more than 5000 genomes, comprising 1209 bacterial species of which 75% are unknown. The microbial composition, diversity, and functional content exhibit associations with animal taxonomy, diet, activity, social structure, and life span. We identify the gut microbiota of wild animals as a largely untapped resource for the discovery of therapeutics and biotechnology applications. [1]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.abb5352 [2]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.abg9095 [3]: pending:yes
Bob Yirka
April 14, 2021
A team of researchers from the SINAI Department of Computer Science, CEATIC and Universidad de Jaén has found that Twitter posts with negative sentiments are more likely to go viral than those that are more positive. In their paper published in the journal Royal Society Open Science, the group describes their analysis of Twitter posts during a politically emotional event in Spain--a referendum seeking to give Catalan independence back in 2017.
Joshua Baxt
April 12, 2021
An international team of researchers led by computer scientists at the University of California San Diego have identified 163 variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) that actively regulate gene expression. In a paper published in Nature Communications this week, the researchers provide new insights into this understudied mechanism, how it may drive disease and other traits and could ultimately impact patient care.
Thinking Media
January 19, 2021
/PRNewswire/ -- Because of COVID-19 millions of students are remote, creating gaps that effect learning outcomes. These gaps often include a lack of Internet...
January 19, 2021
It was music that sparked William Oliver's lifelong passion for computers. Growing up in the Finger Lakes region of New York, he was an avid keyboard player. "But I got into music school on voice," says Oliver, "because it was a little bit easier." But once in school, first at State University of New York at Fredonia then the University of Rochester, he hardly shied away from a challenge. "I was studying sound recording technology, which led me to digital signal processing," explains Oli...
Science X staff
December 10, 2020
The team, led by Bristol researcher and Phasecraft co-founder, Dr. Ashley Montanaro, has discovered algorithms and analysis which significantly lessen the quantum hardware capability needed to solve problems which go beyond the realm of classical computing, even supercomputers.
Agustín López
November 9, 2020
The use of digital videos in learning processes is becoming increasingly widespread, particularly within the educational context created by the COVID-19 pandemic. In a situation where moving education online is the only recourse, carrying out research into the impacts of using this kind of audiovisual material becomes imperative. A UOC team has studied the way digital videos are perceived by groups of engineering students when applied to various introductory physics courses, both at a fully online university, such as the UOC, and a traditional bricks-and-mortar university, such as the Escola Universitària Salesiana de Sarrià (EUSS). The results show that audiovisual materials are well received by students, who find them extremely useful, and highlight videos' potential for increasing academic success by generating higher pass rates.
Press Trust of India
August 18, 2020
Walmart-owned Flipkart on Tuesday said it has inked an agreement with IIT-Patna to help create industry-focused applied research in the areas of artificial intelligence
Christopher Carbone
May 28, 2020
Fox News
Israeli researchers have helped thwart a potentially massive cyberattack, a study showed.
April 14, 2020
Huawei held a live webinar for online higher education to help ensure continuous online education during the suspension of schools and universities. The webinar, as a special part of Huawei's Learn ON Program, was jointly organized by Huawei and its partners including UNESCO IITE and UNESCO-ICHEI. Leaders and experts from global enterprises and universities were invited to share their practice and challenges in online education during the COVID-19 crisis. They also discussed feasible solut...
Dan Goodin
December 3, 2019
Ars Technica
795-bit factoring and discrete logarithms achieved using more efficient algorithms.
Scroll Staff
December 2, 2019
The San Bernardino Police Department said the motive behind the murder of Abhishek Sudhesh Bhat is not clear yet.
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