Svyatoslav Nikolayevich Fyodorov (born August 8, 1927 – June 2, 2000) was a Russian ophthalmologist, politician, professor, full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. He is considered to be a pioneer of refractive surgery. He was also one of the candidates in the 1996 Russian presidential election, running as a member of the Party of Workers' Self-Government.
Life and career
Fyodorov was born in Proskurov, Ukrainian SSR (now Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine), to ethnic Russian parents. Fyodorov graduated from Rostov Medical Institute in Rostov on Don, then worked as a practicing ophthalmologist in a small town in Rostov Oblast.
In the 1960s he studied the pioneering work of the English ophthalmic surgeon Sir Harold Ridley, the inventor of the intraocular lens (IOL). Fyodorov began to use Ridley's intraocular lenses in his treatment of cataract. At first he used lenses manufactured by the Rayner company in England but he quickly moved to have his lenses manufactured inside the Soviet Union.
In the 1970s he developed the surgical technique he is most famous for, the radial keratotomy, to change the shape of the cornea and cure myopia. In 1986, Fyodorov designed the first posterior chamber phakic IOL in the "collar-button" or "mushroom" configuration and manufactured the pIOL from silicone. In 1980 he became the head of the Moscow Research Institute of Eye Microsurgery. In 1988 he founded the Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Complex. In 1994 he endorsed and wrote the foreword to the American textbook (Radial and Astigmatic Keratotomy) by Dr. Spencer Thornton in which Thornton taught a surgical technique derived from but markedly different from the Fyorodov technique.
Fyodorov Svyatoslav Nikolayevich
Svyatoslav Fyodorov, 72, Eye Surgery Pioneer
June 4, 2000