Space colonization is the formation of permanent self-sufficient human settlement and the exploitation of natural resources beyond earth. Space colonization is also referred to as extraterrestrial colonization and space settlement. Reasons for space colonization include ensuring the long term survival of humanity if something catastrophic happens on earth and the exploitation of natural resources not found on earth. Space colonization can shelter humanity from extinction on earth from events events such as asteroid impacts, nuclear warfare, pandemics, wars, and environmental catastrophes. Arguments against space colonization are primarily regarding the initial economic costs of colonizing space being too high to justify when resources could be used dealing with problems faced on earth such as poverty, hunger, and disease.
To establish a space colony certain there are certain requirements necessary for success. Space colony's require access to space, food, water, construction materials, transportation, energy, communication, life support, protection from radiation, gravity or simulated gravity, and entertainment.
NASA Announces Industry Partnerships to Advance Moon, Mars Technology