Pyotr Kapitsa (born 26 June 1894 in Kronstadt) was a Russian physicist and inventor, known for his work on superfluidity. He held citizenship in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, and he passed away in Moscow on 8 April 1984.
Kapitsa studied at the University of Cambridge and Trinity College, Cambridge, under the supervision of Ernest Rutherford. Throughout his career, he held occupations as a physicist, professor, and inventor.
He founded the Institute for Physical Problems and Cryogenmash and was a doctoral advisor to David Shoenberg. Kapitsa was also the father of Sergey Kapitsa and Andrey Kapitsa.
Pyotr Kapitsa's scientific contributions include discoveries such as the Kapitsa–Dirac effect, Kapitza instability, Kapitza number, Kapitza resistance, and Kapitza's pendulum. He was the son of Leonid Petrovich Tatarinov and Olga Ieronimovna Kapitsa.
Kapitsa received numerous awards during his lifetime, such as the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physics, the Lomonosov Gold Medal, the Faraday Medal, the Franklin Medal, and the Rutherford Medal and Prize. He also became a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS).