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Russian city, the administrative center of Siberian Federal District

Novosibirsk has a population of 1,612,833 as of 2018, is the most populous city in Siberia, and the third-most populous city in Russia. The city is located in southwestern Siberia, on the banks of the Ob River.

Novosibirsk was founded in 1893 on the Ob River crossing point of the future Trans-Siberian Railway, where the Novosibirsk Rail Bridge was constructed. Originally named Novonikolayevsk, the city grew rapidly into a major transport, commercial, and industrial hub. The city was ravaged by the Russian Civil War but recovered during the early Soviet period, and gained its present name in 1926. Under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, Novosibirsk became one of the largest industrial centers of Siberia. Following the outbreak of World War II, the city hosted many factories relocated from the Russian core.

Novosibirsk is home to the headquarters of numerous Russian corporations, the neo-Byzantine Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, the Novosibirsk Opera and Ballet Theatre, as well as the world-renowned Novosibirsk Zoo. It is served by Tolmachevo Airport, the busiest airport in Siberia.

Novosibirsk is the largest municipal entity in the Russian Federation with the third largest population count of all Russian cities. The resident population as of January 1, 2017, is 1,602.9 thousand (57.7% of the total Novosibirsk Region population). As of January 1, 2017, the city spans an area of 502.7 sq. km and has a population density of 3.2 thousand people per 1 sq. km.

Novosibirsk is the largest municipal entity in the Russian Federation with the third largest population count of all Russian cities. The resident population as of January 1, 2017, is 1,602.9 thousand (57.7% of the total Novosibirsk Region population). As of January 1, 2017, the city spans an area of 502.7 sq. km and has a population density of 3.2 thousand people per 1 sq. km.

Novosibirsk is the largest municipal entity in the Russian Federation with the third largest population count of all Russian cities. The resident population as of January 1, 2017, is 1,602.9 thousand (57.7% of the total Novosibirsk Region population). As of January 1, 2017, the city spans an area of 502.7 sq. km and has a population density of 3.2 thousand people per 1 sq. km.

Novosibirsk is situated at the junction of the forest-steppe and forest natural zones, on the Priobsk plateau, adjacent to the Ob river valley, and at the intersection of key transportation corridors, traditionally used for economic connections between Russian regions, both in the east-west direction (M-51 Baikal federal highway) and in the north-south direction (M-52 Chuisky Tract federal highway and navigable Ob River). The distance from Novosibirsk to Moscow is 3,191 km.

The natural conditions in the area are favorable for the city's development. The natural forest areas, Ob water-storage basin, and small rivers and lakes which lie adjacent to the city together form a diverse complex of recreational resources.

The climate in Novosibirsk and its suburbs is continental. According to agro-climatic zoning, Novosibirsk is a moderately warm and insufficiently humid agro-climatic subregion. The average annual air temperature is +0.2ºC, with the average temperature in July being +19ºC and in January, −19ºC.

Novosibirsk was originally established in 1893 as a settlement for builders working on the railway bridge across the Ob River. The impetus for its development was the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway.

In less than 70 years, Novosibirsk’s population reached over a million. It remains the fastest growing city in the world to this day, for which it has been included in the Guinness Book of Records.

Novosibirsk has been the administrative center of the Novosibirsk Region since September 28, 1937, and the center of the Siberian Federal District since May 13, 2000.

Present-day Novosibirsk is the business, trade, financial, scientific, production, and cultural center of the Asian part of Russia. It accommodates the residency of the authorized representative of the President of the Russian Federation for the Siberian Federal District, the representative office of the Russian Federation Ministry of External Affairs, the Siberian Customs Administration, representative offices of other federal authorities, and agencies, and headquarters of interregional organizations.

The city is divided into eight administrative districts — Dzerzhinsky, Kirovsky, Kalininsky, Leninsky, Oktyabrsky, Pervomaisky, and Sovetsky districts and Central Borough. The largest of these in terms of population are Leninsky district — 301 thousand people (18,8% of the city population) and Central Borough — 292 thousand people (18,2%). In terms of territory, the largest ones are Sovetsky District (87,5 sq. km) and Central Borough (84,2 sq. km)

Novosibirsk is the center of the Novosibirsk Agglomeration, which incorporates settlements that are economically, socially, and territorially interrelated with Novosibirsk and located up to an hour and a half away from its downtown district. The agglomeration’s population exceeds 2 million and accounts for more than three-quarters of the Gross Regional Product of the Novosibirsk Region. It also sets virtually all development trends of the regional economy. The following settlements are part of the agglomeration in the economic sense: cities of regional significance-Berdsk and Ob, urban-type settlements-Koltsovo and Krasnoobsk, the Novosibirsk rural district, as well as a number of other regional districts adjacent to Novosibirsk, including Ordynsky, Toguchinsky, Iskitimsky, Kolyvansky, and others.

The social aspect of the Novosibirsk Urban Agglomeration settlements’ interaction is characterized by low territorial segmentation of the labor market and by objective trends of a single labor market formation in adjacent territories. In this regard, a significant role is played by the commuting that takes place between the regional center and the agglomeration settlements due to labor relations as well as cultural, trade, educational, and other connections. Through commuting, Novosibirsk’s population daily increases by at least 80 to 100 thousand people.

There are people of over 120 nationalities residing in Novosibirsk, with Russians accounting for most of the population (around 93%). The largest ethnic groups are Ukranian, Uzbec, Tatar, German, and Tajic. In addition, the city is home to Armenians, Kyrgyz, Azerbaijanis, Belarusians, Kazakhs, Koreans, Yezidis, Jews, Chinese, Gypsies, Tuva, Buryatia, Chuvash, Georgians and representatives of other nationalities. The city has over forty registered national and cultural organizations.

The political situation in the city is stable. The municipal government authorities operate in close cooperation with the city’s business community and the general public.

International Relations of Novosibirsk

There are numerous representative offices and economic missions of foreign states operating in the city, including the Consulates General of Germany, Uzbekistan, and Ukraine, the Vice-Consulate of Kirghizia, the Embassy Department of the Republic of Belarus, Commercial Section of the Embassy of the Republic of Korea, Novosibirsk Department of the Institute for Foreign Trade under the auspices of the Italian Embassy in the RF (ICE), as well as visa application centers of most European Union member states. Over 80 thousand foreign citizens visit Novosibirsk annually for business and personal purposes, and this number grows every year.

The city has established and is actively developing economic and cultural relations with China, Japan, South Korea and other countries, as well as with the following sister cities: Minneapolis and Saint Paul in the USA, Sapporo in Japan, Mianyang and Shenyang in China, Daejeon in the Republic of Korea, Varna in the Republic of Bulgaria, Osh in the Kyrgyz Republic, Kharkov in the Ukraine, Minsk in Belarus, Yerevan in Armenia and Sevastopol in Russia.

The following organizations operate in the city: Israeli Culture Centre, Confucius Institute (China) at the Novosibirsk State Technical University, German Cultural Center Goethe in Novosibirsk, the American Corner USA Information Centre, the Novosibirsk Russian-German House, Sibir-Hokkaido Municipal Cultural Centre, Alliance-Française-Novosibirsk French Cultural Centre, and the Russian-Korean Science and Technology Centre.

There are several dozen foreign companies’ representative offices accredited and operating in Novosibirsk.


Novosibirsk’s economy is based on industry, trade, services, transport, construction, science, and scientific services. The city is undergoing successful development despite the absence of large resource-extraction enterprises in the region, making it unique among most large Siberian cities.

There are about 108.4 thousand enterprises and organizations and over 45.1 thousand individual entrepreneurs operating in the city. Close to 800 thousand people are engaged in the city’s economy, over half of which are employed at large and medium enterprises and city organizations, and about quarter at small and micro-sized enterprises.


The city’s production system is based on over 220 large and medium production enterprises which account for 60% of the regional output of industrial products and services, as well as on over 400 small industrial enterprises. Every sixth employee of enterprises and organizations of the city works in industrial production.

Novosibirsk’s industrial complex is targeted at processing and science-intensive industries. The key industrial branches include the aircraft industry, nuclear industry, engineering industry, power industry, metal working, and pharmaceutics. Novosibirsk is currently one of the leading suppliers of nuclear fuel to the world power markets.


Novosibirsk is the largest transport hub in Western Siberia, situated at the intersection of major traffic arteries, including the Trans-Siberian Railway. It also has railway access to Central Asia.

The city has four railway stations, including Novosibirsk-Glavny — the largest station east of the Urals. Novosibirsk accommodates the largest Russian sorting depot where a record number of cargoes may be received and handled.

Airlines link Novosibirsk to more than 80 cities in Russia and worldwide. Tolmachevo Airport, being one of largest airports in the country and the largest airport in Siberia is located in the Urban Agglomeration (17 km from Novosibirsk’s center, in the territory of Ob City, Novosibirsk Region). Tolmachevo Airport’s technical facilities enable it to service all types of modern passenger and cargo aircraft of domestic and foreign manufacture. This high-class airport provides a dynamic link between our city and the world’s largest megacities, making it convenient to hold international business trips and tourist visits.

There are three motor roads of federal significance passing through Novosibirsk: R-254 Irtysh (from Chelyabinsk through Kurgan and Omsk, to Novosibirsk), and R-255 Siberia (from Novosibirsk through Kemerovo and Krasnoyarsk to Irkutsk) and R-256 Chuisky Tract (from Novosibirsk through Novoaltaisk, Biysk, Maima to the Mongolian border). There is a motor-coach terminal in the city which provides bus service to the districts of the Novosibirsk region and nearby towns of neighboring regions of Siberia and the Republic of Kazakhstan.

The urban passenger transport includes buses, trolleybuses, trams, taxicabs, shuttle taxicabs and a subway. All types of public passenger transport are equipped with an automated accounting and cashless fare system.

Novosibirsk’s subway, being the first and only subway in the eastern part of the country, was opened at the end of 1985. Currently, it has two active lines with 13 stations and a total length of 15.9 km. The metro bridge is the longest of its kind in the world.


Further Resources


【4K】🇷🇺 Novosibirsk from Above 🔥 RUSSIA 2021 🔥 Cinematic Wolf AerialTM Drone Film


October 11, 2021

【4K】Drone Footage | Novosibirsk - RUSSIA 2019 ..:: Siberia's Marvellous Metropolis | Новосиби́рск


April 19, 2019

Novosibirsk as a "Smart City" | Kostina | World of Economics and Management



Science X staff
April 8, 2021
Orchids of the Boreal zone are rare species. Most of the 28,000 species of the Orchid family actually live in the tropics. In the Boreal zone, ground orchids can hardly tolerate competition from other plants--mainly forbs or grasses. So they are often pushed into ecotones--border areas between meadows and forests, or between forests and swamps.
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This is some dashcam footage from Novosibirsk, Russia of a car getting struck by lightning twice in row, proving the old adage that lightning never strikes the same place twice a dirty lie. What's next, two wrongs making a...


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