According to archaeological research, people have lived on the territory of the modern state of Minnesota for about nine thousand years. It is in Minnesota (as well as in the neighboring states of Wisconsin and Michigan) that the oldest metal instruments on the North American continent, made seven thousand years ago, were discovered. The first settlements of the American Indians in Minnesota appeared about three thousand years before our era, about two and a half years ago the first mounds appeared, a characteristic feature of the culture of the Indian peoples who lived in the Midwest. Towards the end of the first millennium, the Minnesota Indians began to actively engage in agriculture, with corn and wild (water) rice as the main crops.
By the time the Europeans arrived in Minnesota, most of the Indians living here belonged to the Dakota people. Later, at the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries, the Ojibwe Indians (anishinaabe) moved from the east under the pressure of the colonists to Minnesota.
By the way, it was in Minnesota in 1968 that the American Indian Movement was born, a public organization whose task is to protect the rights of Native Americans.
The Minnesota lands were part of the Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa territories. In 1849, the Minnesota Territory was created. On May 11, 1858, Minnesota became the thirty-second state of the United States.
Minnesota is the northernmost state in the continental United States, only Alaska is further north.
Northeast Minnesota is part of the Laurentian Uplands, the oldest (more than 2.7 billion years) geological formation. This region is characterized by a thin layer of soil, numerous rock outcrops, thousands of lakes and streams. It is here that the highest point of the state is located - Eagle Mountain (701 meters above sea level), reserves Voyagers National Park, Lake Superior National Forest, Chippewa National Forest and others.
Almost the entire north of Minnesota is covered by what is known as Laurentian mixed forests. Pine, spruce, fir, juniper, aspen, oak, birch, mountain ash, maple grow here. Black bears, moose, white-tailed deer, lynx and many other animals live in the forests. Minnesota has the largest wolf population in the US outside of Alaska.
The northwest of the state is a vast plain that was once the bottom of a lake formed by a melting glacier (in general, during the last glaciation, glaciers covered almost the entire surface of modern Minnesota, with the exception of only the southeast of the state). The west and southwest of Minnesota are prairies covered with grasses and steppe shrubs. Deciduous forests are located in the southeast of the state.
Minnesota is called the "state of ten thousand lakes", according to official statistics in the state there are almost twelve thousand lakes, the area of \u200b\u200bwhich exceeds ten acres (40,000 m2). The largest and deepest of them is, of course, Lake Superior, one of the Great Lakes of North America.
The state has about six and a half thousand rivers and streams, it is in Minnesota that the sources of the largest river in the United States, the Mississippi, are located.
Minnesota's largest city, Minneapolis, now has about 430,000 people. The capital of the "Northern Star State", the city of Saint Paul, has about 310,000 inhabitants. In the urban agglomeration of Minneapolis-Saint Paul, known as the "Twin Cities", about 3,650,000 people live (16th place in the list of the largest US metropolitan areas).
The economy of Minnesota is characterized by diversity, there are no clearly leading directions, but there are many well-developed industries. Minnesota is the largest producer of sugar beets, sweet corn and green peas in the United States. The state has a well-developed poultry industry, with turkeys raised mainly on poultry farms in Minnesota. A significant part of the state's agricultural products is also processed here. Forestry and mining traditionally remain important sectors for the economy. Minnesota has a very well developed industry, including high-tech industries.
Minnesota State Symbols
Tree - resinous pine (red, Pinus resinosa)
Flower - Queen's slipper (Cypripedium reginae)
Cereal - Zizania (wild rice, Zizania palustris)
Mushroom - edible morel (Morchella esculenta)
Bird - black-billed loon (Gavia immer)
Fish - lightfin zander (Stizostedion vitreum)
Insect - bumblebee (Bombus affinis)
Butterfly - Monarch Danaid (Danaus plexippus)
Food product (fruit) - apple variety "Honeycrisp" Malus pumila
Drink - milk
Pie (muffin) - blueberry muffin
Precious (ornamental) stone - Lake Superior agate
Sports - ice hockey
Song - "Hail Minnesota"
The largest ethnic (national) groups among the population of the state of Minnesota:
Germans - about 38%
Norwegians - about 17%
Irish - about 12%
Swedes - about 9.5%
English - about 6.5%
Poles - about 5%
French - about 4%
Czechs - about 3.5%