A logo is a sign, symbol, trademark or badge that conveys the identity or ownership of a product, company, campaign or concept in as memorable a way as possible.
The history of logos goes back to ancient family crests, hieroglyphs and symbolism. Early versions of logos developed in the Middle Ages (around 1300 AD), as shops and pubs used signage to represent what they did. The first royal logo design were created in the early 1900s, evolving alongside mass printing.
Frank Mason Robinson designed the Coca-Cola logo in 1885, starting the modern era of logo design. Coca-Cola's logo remains among the most recognized brands in the world. In 1956, Paul Rand designed the iconic, pictographic IBM logo featuring a human eye and a bee. Most logo historians see this as a turning point in the history of logo design.
In the early 1960s, various leaders in the London graphic design and art director scene decided to collaborate to improve the entire field of design more generally. In 1962, they founded D&AD, Design and Art Direction. The organization stated as its intent the promotion of excellence in advertising and design. Between 1962 and 1964, Charles Csuri and A. Michael Noll created some of the first computer art, signaling the coming changes in logo design.