Indo-european language of the Italic family. Primary language of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈliŋɡwa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the western Roman Empire.

Language History

By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin. Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence.

Late Latin is the written language from the 3rd century and Medieval Latin was used from the 9th century to the Renaissance which used Renaissance Latin.

Later, Early Modern Latin and New Latin evolved. Latin was used as the language of international communication, scholarship and science until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars.

Ecclesiastical Latin remains the official language of the Holy See and the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Latin is taught in primary, secondary and postsecondary educational institutions around the world. Latin is a highly inflected language, with three distinct genders, up to seven noun cases, five declensions, four verb conjugations, three tenses, three persons, three moods, two voices, two or three aspects and two numbers.

The following is a conventional chronology for the language and literature:

  • Archaic through Early Republican Period (down to ca. 80 BC)
  • Late Republican and Augustan period (the "Golden Age") (80 BC - 14 AD)
  • Post-Augustan Period (the "Silver Age") (14 - 138 AD)
  • Patristic Period (late 2nd-5th centuries)
  • Medieval Period (6th-14th centuries)
  • Renaissance (15th century)

The Golden Age can be divided into:

  • Ciceronian Period (80 - 43 BC)
  • Augustan Period (43 BC - 14 AD)
Influence on Other Languages

Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, French, Portuguese, Romanian, and Spanish. The English language has also derived many words from Latin. In particular, Latin (and Ancient Greek) roots are used in English descriptions of theology, biology, science, medicine and law.




Further reading


The Official Wheelock's Latin Series Website

Web / Books

Documentaries, videos and podcasts





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iHeartMedia, the leading audio company in America and No. 1 podcast publisher, announced that it has extended its relationship with top-rated on-air radio personality and community leader Enrique Santos. Under a new five-year agreement, Santos will continue as President and Chief Creative Officer of iHeartLatino as well as morning host on his Spanish nationally-syndicated show originating from TÚ 94.9 in Miami and host of his English weekly nationally-syndicated radio show "On The Move w...
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/PRNewswire/ -- In early January, after several months of collaborating over the internet due to travel restrictions, the Latin Pop/Rock group Al Cielo is...
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/PRNewswire/ -- Tarima, the Latin concert channel, joined the DishLATINO family today in the US and Puerto Rico. TARIMA has been added to the new Cine y...
National Pork Board
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/PRNewswire-HISPANIC PR WIRE/ -- Although this holiday season will be different, there are still many flavorful ways to safely celebrate, share love, and pass...
Science X staff
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Researchers are discovering thousands of new bacterial species that live with us, on us and even inside us. Our relationship with them affects our health and that of the planet--but to define that relationship, new species need new names.
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The word lox was one of the clues that eventually led linguists to discover who the Proto-Indo-Europeans were, and where they lived.Photograph...
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Euromoney magazine has named Bank of America the best bank in transaction services in Latin and North America in the publication's 2020 Awards for Excellence. This is the latest recognition the Global Transaction Services (GTS) business has received, and follows recent awards for innovation and trade finance, as well as top rankings in Commercial Card. Established in 1992, the Euromoney Awards for Excellence program is considered a global benchmark for the banking industry. The publicatio...
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Crowdfund Insider
Click HERE to find out ⭐ Omni-Channel Banking Solutions Auriga Opens First Offices In Spain & Mexico. | Crowdfund Insider: Global Fintech News, including Crowdfunding, Blockchain and more.
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This is the (already funded) Kickstarter campaign for the memento mori (a reminder of the inevitability of death, Latin 'remember you must die') cups and mugs created by ceramics artist Trevor Foster to encourage people to live life to...
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Films in Progress is a professional platform which supports the production of Latin American feature films by contributing to their completion and international distribution. Organised jointly by the San Sebastian Festival and Cinélatino, Rencontres de Toulouse, Films in Progress fosters meeting, dialogue and interaction between Latin American and European film professionals, promoting the diversity and talent of independent moviemakers., , , , Films in Progress 37 will run on March 26 and 27...
David Adger
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Listen to them, the children of the night. What music they make!"So says Count Dracula to the hapless Jonathan Harker in Bram Stoker's...By David Adger
David Adger
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Listen to them, the children of the night. What music they make!"So says Count Dracula to the hapless Jonathan Harker in Bram Stoker's...By David Adger
Caitlin Hotchkiss
December 6, 2019
The SaaS Weekly is a weekly newsletter covering major SaaS news from Canada and around the globe.
Darrell Etherington
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UK-based lunar rover startup Spacebit, a company developing robotic exploration hardware for use on the Moon, announced two new partners that will help it develop and finalize its technology ahead of its target mission date of 2021. The Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency (EXA) and Mexico's Dereum will be providing the technology that Spacebit will employ [...]
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We announced that renowned hitmakers Bad Bunny and Nicky Jam would be headlining the next installment in our ¡Viva Latino! Live series in the vibrant metropolis of Miami. Today that lineup is growing to include some of the hottest rising stars in the business: Rosalía, Sebastián Yatra, and Sech. Each artist brings their own growing momentum to the show, touting a combined 53.4 million monthly listeners on Spotify. , , , , , , • Rosalía has catapulted to stardom since be...


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