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Finland

Finland

Country in northern Europe

Finland, officially the Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta; Swedish: Republiken Finland), is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east. Finland is a Nordic country and is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia. The capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Vantaa, Tampere, Oulu and Turku.

Finland's population is 5.52 million (2018), and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 87.6% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages; next come the Finland-Swedes (5.2%). Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. The sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, and one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP.

History

Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended, approximately 9000 BCE. The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia, Russia, and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers, using stone tools. The first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE, when the Comb Ceramic culture was introduced. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture. The Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas - Southwest Finland, Tavastia and Karelia - as reflected in contemporary jewellery.

From the late 13th century, Finland gradually became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, and the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office.

Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the equally new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Salla, Kuusamo, Petsamo and some islands, but retaining their independence.

Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, and finally the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.

Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but also in material, such as ships and machinery. This forced Finland to industrialize. It rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, and human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011-2016 in the Fragile States Index, and second in the Global Gender Gap Report. It also ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, and freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.

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Helsinki Marketing
May 11, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- Helsinki Biennial will take place for the first time from 12 June to 26 September 2021 on Vallisaari island, located in the Helsinki...
Connor Coombe-Whitlock
May 11, 2021
Express.co.uk
PENSION prospects across Europe can vary and recent analysis on this from the Government showed the UK ranks pretty low on state pension ages, income and sustainability. Additional research on this has been conducted by Blacktower Financial Management Group which found the best country for retirement in 2021.
Research and Markets
May 6, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- The "Tertiary Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies Market by Type (Membrane Filtration, UV Radiation, Chlorination, Ozonization,...
William Ralston
May 4, 2021
Wired
A family-run psychotherapy startup grew into a health care giant. It was a huge success--until the data breach and the anonymous ransom notes sent to clients.
Thomas Colson
May 1, 2021
Business Insider
Finland's major basic-income trial was controversial, but one journalist who took part in it describes it as a liberating experience.
Omar Faridi
April 27, 2021
Crowdfund Insider
P2P lender Bondora reports positive portfolio performance, shares updates on Finland, Estonia, Spain markets.
Heather Murphy
April 26, 2021
www.nytimes.com
A variety of digital and old-fashioned approaches are being used to confirm vaccination for entry to public places. But the world is still far from a universal standard of proof for crossing borders.
The Office of Dr Johan Backman
April 23, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- Legal sociologist and human rights activist, Dr. Johan Beckman has added his voice to the many people that have appealed to declare COVID-19...
Better Than Milk
April 21, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- April 22nd marks the 51st anniversary of Earth Day and while Better Than Milk may be young compared to that, they are committed to catching up...
Jacob Koshy
April 21, 2021
The Hindu
Coronavirus variants that carry some of the mutations associated with B.1.618 have also been found in the United States, Switzerland, Singapore and Finland.
Jenny Gross and Johanna Lemola
April 20, 2021
www.nytimes.com
Finland, for the fourth consecutive year, topped a list of countries evaluated on the well-being of their inhabitants. "Really?" Finns ask.
BC Platforms
April 20, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- BC Platforms (BCP), a global leader in healthcare data management, analytics and access, announced a new strategic partnership with US-based...
Johnson Matthey
April 19, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- Johnson Matthey (JM), a global leader in sustainable technologies, today announces significant strategic developments in the commercialisation...
April 16, 2021
The Indian Express
Vietnam's health ministry called for the acceleration of its COVID-19 vaccine rollout on Friday as the expiry date of the Southeast Asian country's first batch of jabs supplied through the COVAX scheme fast approaches.
Robin Wauters
April 16, 2021
Tech.eu
Editor's note: This is a sponsored article, which means it is independently written by our editorial team but financially supported by another organisation, in this case, Helsinki Business Hub. If you would like to learn more about sponsored posts on Tech.eu, read this and contact us if you are interested in partnering with us. Finland's [...]
Gerard O'Dwyer
April 16, 2021
ComputerWeekly.com
Finland's government has created a new national organisation to help public and private bodies improve network security
Conor Hale
April 14, 2021
FierceBiotech
Medtronic has launched a new line of insulin infusion hardware in Europe that effectively doubles its lifespan, with sets capable of being worn for up to seven days at a time.
Science X staff
April 8, 2021
phys.org
It may be possible in the future to use information technology where electron spin is used to store, process and transfer information in quantum computers. It has long been the goal of scientists to be able to use spin-based quantum information technology at room temperature. A team of researchers from Sweden, Finland and Japan have now constructed a semiconductor component in which information can be efficiently exchanged between electron spin and light at room temperature and above. The new method is described in an article published in Nature Photonics.
Joe Pinkstone
April 1, 2021
Mail Online
Dog testes were studied by scientists at the University of Nottingham who found the chemicals and abnormalities seen in the reproductive organs depends on where dogs live.
Kevin Rawlinson
March 6, 2021
the Guardian
An ambulance is pictured in front of a Stalin-era skyscraper in Moscow on 4 March. Photograph: Natalia Kolesnikova/AFP/Getty Images
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