Country in northern Europe

Finland, officially the Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta; Swedish: Republiken Finland), is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east. Finland is a Nordic country and is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia. The capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Vantaa, Tampere, Oulu and Turku.

Finland's population is 5.52 million (2018), and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 87.6% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages; next come the Finland-Swedes (5.2%). Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. The sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, and one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP.


Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended, approximately 9000 BCE. The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia, Russia, and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers, using stone tools. The first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE, when the Comb Ceramic culture was introduced. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture. The Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas - Southwest Finland, Tavastia and Karelia - as reflected in contemporary jewellery.

From the late 13th century, Finland gradually became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, and the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office.

Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the equally new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Salla, Kuusamo, Petsamo and some islands, but retaining their independence.

Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, and finally the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.

Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but also in material, such as ships and machinery. This forced Finland to industrialize. It rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, and human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011-2016 in the Fragile States Index, and second in the Global Gender Gap Report. It also ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, and freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.




Further reading


Documentaries, videos and podcasts





January 17, 2021
You can now watch on YouTube the video clip of "En una Nube," Molly Moon's first single, released on music platforms a week ago., , , , "En una Nube" has been warmly welcomed mostly by the Spanish-speaking public, although it is also being played all around the globe, in countries such as Finland, Australia, Russia or China. This is the first single of the songwriter and singer Molly Moon, a song that impressed by its solid production and brilliant arrangements., , , , Molly Moon is a 20-year-ol...
Claudia Wallis
January 3, 2021
Scientific American
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Wood Resources International LLC
December 31, 2020
/PRNewswire/ -- Softwood lumber production in Europe has increased steadily increased over the past five years. Consequently, additional volumes of sawmill...
Commitee Office of 2020 Sino-European New Economic Online Cooperation Conference
December 29, 2020
/PRNewswire/ -- In the context of the "dual circulation" development pattern and the normalization of epidemic prevention and control, the Chengdu New Economic...
Dominic-Madori Davis
December 28, 2020
Business Insider
The "90 Day Finn" program provides successful applicants housing, school, daycare, networking opportunities, and places to work remotely.
Fast Enterprises, LLC
December 22, 2020
/PRNewswire/ -- A major IT program that overhauled Finland's national tax system through implementation of software from Fast Enterprises (FAST) has been...
Karl Flinders
December 21, 2020
Here are Computer Weekly's top 10 Nordic enterprise IT stories of 2020
Science X staff
December 18, 2020
The Copernicus Sentinel-1 mission takes us over Lapland, the largest and northernmost region of Finland, just in time for Christmas.
Gerard O'Dwyer
December 18, 2020
Government is strengthening its legal framework to protect data from hackers in the wake of a massive breach at a psychotherapy centre
December 16, 2020
· Special edition of the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report examines how the recovery from COVID-19 crisis can build productive, sustainable and inclusive economic systems · Countries with advanced digital economies, strong social safety nets and robust healthcare systems have managed the impact of the pandemic more effectively · Report measures which countries are best prepared for recovery and future economic transformation · Country rankings have been suspended du...
Gerard O'Dwyer
December 15, 2020
Authorities in Helsinki will use artificial intelligence and video technologies to help them automate monitoring of crowds
Thomas Colson
December 14, 2020
Business Insider
Sweden is grappling with an alarming second wave of coronavirus infections as intensive care units in Stockholm reach capacity.
Sam Kingsley
December 10, 2020
On a barren expanse of bog in southeast Finland the size of 180 football pitches, Taisto Raussi's yellow harvester hoovers up a thin layer of rich peat and deposits it in a heap, to be sold as fuel.
December 7, 2020
Trust in online shopping seems to have increased in Finland. Some 77% of Finns deem online shopping to be safe. In the Security Barometer 2018, the corresponding share was 69%. In addition, only a fifth of Finns regard online shopping as unsafe, whereas in 2018 the share was almost one third. The Finnish Commerce Federation is expecting a "record-breaking e-commerce Christmas season". "Christmas shopping seems to be moving increasingly to the digital realm. It would seem that building ...
December 7, 2020
Sky News
The move from a non-NATO country risks reprisals against Finland's largest company, which sells 5G equipment in China.
Science X staff
December 7, 2020
In Finland, the majority of the glacial and warm interval records have been interpreted to represent only the last, Weichselian, glacial cycle that took place 11,700-119,000 years ago. Finnish researchers have now revised the crucial part of the existing stratigraphic documentation in southern Finland. The new findings show that a considerable part of the warm interval records extends further back in time than earlier thought. The new results change the established conceptions about glacial history in the area.
Research and Markets
December 4, 2020
/PRNewswire/ -- The "Impact of Covid-19 on Air Filter Media Market by Type (Nonwoven Fabrics, Fiberglass, Filter Paper), End-use Industry (Food & Beverage,...
itelligence AG
November 30, 2020
/PRNewswire/ -- itelligence | NTT DATA Business Solutions, the leading SAP consultancy worldwide, is expanding its presence in the Nordic region. With effect...
JD Alois
November 27, 2020
Crowdfund Insider
Click HERE to find out ⭐ Medtech Firm Raises €2 Million in 30 Hours on Invesdor. | Crowdfund Insider: Global Fintech News, including Crowdfunding, Blockchain and more.
November 27, 2020
/PRNewswire/ -- Strong momentum continues: first GMP campaign initiated, first dosing in humans to start before year-end, all near-term business targets set...


Golden logo
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0; additional terms apply. By using this site, you agree to our Terms & Conditions.