Finland

Finland

Country in northern Europe

Finland, officially the Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta; Swedish: Republiken Finland), is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east. Finland is a Nordic country and is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia. The capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Vantaa, Tampere, Oulu and Turku.

Finland's population is 5.52 million (2018), and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 87.6% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages; next come the Finland-Swedes (5.2%). Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. The sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, and one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP.

History

Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended, approximately 9000 BCE. The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia, Russia, and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers, using stone tools. The first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE, when the Comb Ceramic culture was introduced. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture. The Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas - Southwest Finland, Tavastia and Karelia - as reflected in contemporary jewellery.

From the late 13th century, Finland gradually became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, and the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office.

Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the equally new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Salla, Kuusamo, Petsamo and some islands, but retaining their independence.

Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, and finally the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.

Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but also in material, such as ships and machinery. This forced Finland to industrialize. It rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, and human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011-2016 in the Fragile States Index, and second in the Global Gender Gap Report. It also ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, and freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.

Timeline

People

Name
Role
LinkedIn

Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date

Documentaries, videos and podcasts

Title
Date
Link

Companies

Company
CEO
Location
Products/Services

News

Title
Author
Date
Publisher
Description
The Associated Press
September 23, 2020
Coronavirus
Finland has deployed coronavirus-sniffing dogs at the Nordic country's main international airport in a four-month trial of an alternative testing method that could become a cost-friendly and quick way to identify infected travellers.
Sarah Boseley Health editor
September 10, 2020
the Guardian
The Oxford University/AstraZeneca vaccine trial was temporarily halted after one volunteer in the UK was admitted to hospital. Photograph: Amanda Perobelli/Reuters
Press Trust of India
September 2, 2020
@bsindia
The MoU aims to provide a framework and a platform to promote and foster cooperation in the fields of geology, and mineral resources between for mutual economic, social and environmental benefit
August 28, 2020
WebWire
Transformative Agreements (TAs) continue to have an influential and driving impact on enabling a country to flip to a fully open access (OA) environment sustainably and effectively. The latest data from Springer Nature on the growth of OA publishing as a result of its national TAs illustrates that any country with an agreement in place with the publisher, has the ability to flip to full OA. As the largest OA publisher of primary research, Springer Nature continues to drive forward the s...
BBC News
July 16, 2020
BBC News
Hopes of reaching an agreement are not high, but some countries say they need urgent funding.
July 8, 2020
WebWire
, , , , • Two long-term power purchase agreements signed with Finnish wind farm operator and developer Ilmatar Energy , , • Ilmatar to build onshore wind farms in Finland for wind energy delivery starting mid-2022 , , • Agreement moves Borealis closer to goal of sourcing 50% of total electricity consumption from renewable sources in major business areas , , , , , , Borealis announces that it has signed two long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) to source renewable electricity from the Finnish w...
Campbell MacDiarmid
July 2, 2020
The Telegraph
The use of the symbol predated its association with Nazism but caused 'misunderstandings'
Reuters Editorial
June 8, 2020
U.S.
Finland launched its second auction of frequencies for high-speed 5G mobile networks on Monday, the Finnish Transport and Communications Agency said.
FinSMEs
June 3, 2020
FinSMEs
About | Advertise | Contact | Disclaimer | News | The Daily Deal Newsletter FinSMEs.com by FinSMEs is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
June 3, 2020
WebWire
Neste opens a new fully automated Easy Deli store on 3 June 2020 in the center of Helsinki, Finland. The store uses RFID technology, developed in Finland by Nordic ID, which scans all purchases made by the customer at once, for example, through a shopping bag or a backpack. It is the first self-service convenience store in Europe using RFID technology. "Consumer shopping behavior is changing rapidly. We want to be part of this development and offer new kinds of smoother and faster custome...
Jon Henley Europe correspondent and agencies
May 21, 2020
the Guardian
A portrait of Sweden's chief epidemiologist, Anders Tegnell, hangs below a sign telling people to wash their hands at a restaurant in Stockholm. Photograph: Jonathan Nackstrand/AFP via Getty Images
FinSMEs
May 19, 2020
FinSMEs
About | Advertise | Contact | Disclaimer | News | The Daily Deal Newsletter FinSMEs.com by FinSMEs is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
Bruce Y. Lee
May 17, 2020
Forbes
Should you be taking Vitamin D supplements during the pandemic?
Donna Lu
May 6, 2020
New Scientist
Finland's two-year test of universal basic income has concluded that it doesn't seem to disincentivise working, and benefits recipients' mental and financial wellbeing
Steve O'Hear
May 4, 2020
TechCrunch
Icebreaker claims to be Finland's most active pre-seed VC. The firm, which also invests in Estonia and Sweden, has backed 38 companies in the last three years out of its first fund, with a 65% success rate so far for companies that have been able to raise follow-on funding. Two weeks ago, Icebreaker announced the [...]
Johan Ahlander
April 30, 2020
IN
Per Arne Fredin has been at the sharp end of Sweden's policy to buck the norm and avoid a COVID-19 lockdown - a decision that has been hailed as both visionary and irresponsible by public figures around the world.
Steve O'Hear
April 27, 2020
TechCrunch
Icebreaker.vc, the Finnish venture capital firm that backs "pre-founders" and pre-seed to seed-stage startups, has launched a second fund, with a first close of €50 million. That's already significantly larger than Icebreaker's first fund (which closed at €20 million) and reflects the VC's geographical expansion. In addition to Finland, where Icebreaker claims to be the [...]
Richard Orange
April 18, 2020
The Telegraph
Claim comes amid bitter debate over success of Sweden's relaxed approach
Yordan
April 17, 2020
GSMArena.com
The phone brings a 48 MP camera but sticks to the dated Kirin 710 chipset.
Reuters Editorial
April 6, 2020
U.S.
Finland's largest tech event Slush, which was scheduled for November 2020, said on Monday it has decided to cancel the conference due to the spread of the new coronavirus.
SHOW MORE

References

Golden logo
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0; additional terms apply. By using this site, you agree to our Terms & Conditions.