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Local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy

Cryotherapy is a form of treatment that uses cold temperatures to therapeutic effect. It can be used locally, in a highly targeted way, or more generally, to trigger your whole body to respond in a certain way.

Localised cryotherapy can include the use of ice packs or ice massage, coolant sprays or ice baths, or even special probes that lower the temperature of your tissue.

Whole-body cryotherapy, on the other hand, immerses your entire person in extremely low temperatures for a few minutes. This can offer health benefits for your whole body.

Cryotherapy for cancer

Cryotherapy can be used to treat and help prevent various types of cancer. You may also hear it referred to as cryosurgery or cryoablation. It uses extreme cold to kill the cancer cells, and it works locally to target the cancer, rather than involving the whole body.

It can be an effective cancer treatment, although more research is needed into whether it’s as effective as other treatments at preventing recurrences.

To treat skin cancer using cryotherapy, a doctor sprays or swabs liquid nitrogen onto the cancerous area. Liquid nitrogen is very, very cold and it freezes the area, killing the cancer cells. The skin forms a scab and then the scab falls off along with the dead cancer cells.

Cryotherapy is also used to treat abnormal or pre-cancerous cells on the cervix. A doctor or specialist nurse uses an instrument called a cryoprobe inside the vagina, to cover the abnormal area with liquid nitrogen. This freezes and destroys the cells.

A cryoprobe can also be used to treat cancers inside the body, by inserting it inside or next to the tumour.

Cryotherapy for skin conditions

Cryotherapy can be used to treat localised skin conditions such as warts and verrucas. A doctor will usually recommend this if over-the-counter treatments containing salicylic acid have failed.

Cryotherapy for skin conditions involves freezing the affected area with liquid nitrogen. A scab forms over the treated area, which later falls off along with the dead cells. It can take a few sessions to work completely.

After treatment, most people find that the skin looks completely normal with no sign of were the lesion used to be. However, in some cases cryotherapy can leave a white mark or scar which can be permanent.

Whole-body cryotherapy

Whole-body cryotherapy is used to treat chronic pain from conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis, as well as general ligament and muscle pain. The treatment uses extremely low temperatures (below minus 80 degrees centigrade) to stimulate the body.

It can be used to treat medical conditions including:

  • rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
  • frozen shoulder
  • fibromyalgia
  • tendonitis
  • muscle and ligament strains
  • skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema

During a WBC session, you enter a pod in a swimming costume or shorts and t-shirt, along with socks, gloves and mouth and ear protection that your physiotherapist will provide. The cold air in pod cools the skin to around five degrees Celsius, triggering the release of endorphins and inducing the body’s natural pain relief system.

This process can relieve pain and inflammation associated with various health conditions, for several weeks at a time.

It is also increasingly used by elite athletes to aid recovery, condition muscles and get the most out of their training.


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