CRISPR stands for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and a CRISPR sequence refers to a DNA locus with hallmark features including, repeated palindromic sequences, which is part of an adaptive immune system in bacteria and a system that has been adapted for use in genome editing and other applications using CRISPR/Cas Tools.
From the CRISPR palindromic sequences, RNA molecules are transcribed and adopt a stable secondary structure between 23 and 47 base pairs in length. Variable regions called spacer DNA are located between these sequences which originate from the genome of foreign DNA. The spacer sequence or protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) is required for target recognition.
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- CRISPR/Cas ToolsClustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated (Cas) proteins perform adaptive immune functions in prokaryotic organisms defending against foreign nucleic acids such as viruses. CRISPR/Cas tools have been adapted for use in genome editing and other DNA and RNA targeting applications.
- CRISPRClustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune response that provides immunity against foreign nucleic acids, such as viral DNA and bacterial plasmids, through the use of crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) and associated Cas genes.
- CRISPR-Cas9CRISPR-Cas9 is a genome editing system. CRISPR systems provides immunity to bacteria and archaea from viruses and has been adapted for use as a genome editing tool capable of knocking out genes and rewriting genetic sequences in animal, plant and fungi. CRISPR-Cas9 is being adapted to other applications outside genome editing.