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Batch production

Batch production

Batch production is a manufacturing process characterized by the parallel fabrication and assembly of multiple copies of the same product wherein all steps of the process must be completed before producing the next lot can be made.

Batch production is a manufacturing process whereby multiple copies of a product are produced, often in parallel, in groups which typically need to be completed before the next group, or batch, can be produced. In a batch production setting, different manufacturing steps may be carried out at separate stations, and the manufacturing step is carried out for all items in the batch. Most steps of the batch production process involve fabrication rather than assembly.

Batch production is different from job production, wherein a product is made one at a time, and flow production, where steps of the production process are standardized and completed in an assembly-line fashion.

Batch production shares some similarities with job production, in that the production process must be completed from beginning to end before commencing work on the next batch of product. Like flow production, batch production aims to produce products with a degree of uniformity, at least for products made within the same batch.

Batch production results in higher production throughput and efficiency than job production, but less throughput and efficiency than flow production. Batch production may be the optimal production method when order sizes are too small to warrant the investment in infrastructure (like conveyor belts and specialized machinery) to facilitate flow production, or if demand for the product is highly variable.

Examples of batch production

Many industries use batch production to produce their products. Examples include: clothing manufacturing, many types of small to medium-scale food production (like baking or sausage-making), printing (including screen printing, lithography, and letterpress), machine shops, and pharmaceutical production (including the production of vaccines).

Some larger systems, like education, can also be characterized as a form of batch production even when no physical product results.

Batch production companies




Further reading


A planning model for just-in-time batch manufacturing

Erne Houghton, Victor Portougal


September 1995

Determining Economic Batch Sizes for Multiple Items in a Multilevel Manufacturing System

S.K. Goyal, A. Gunasekaran, T. Martikainen, P. Yli-Olli


December 1993

Optimal cost design of flow lines with reconfigurable machines for batch production

Olga Battaïa, Alexandre Dolgui, Nikolai Guschinsky


February 11, 2020

Optimal manufacturing batch size with rework process at a single-stage production system

A.M.M Jamal, Bhaba R Sarker, Sanjay Mondal


August 2004

Optimum Product Mix Management under Multiple Batch Production Utilising a Computer Simulation Model

Lalith Goonatilake


May 1989

Documentaries, videos and podcasts


Batch Production - Phantom Rolls Royce

December 10, 2013

Production of frozen Pizza

January 4, 2011

Types of Production Systems (Process, Mass, Flow, Batch, Job Shop & Project Production Systems)

June 12, 2019


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