In October 2015, AlphaGo became the first computer Go program to beat a human professional Go player without handicaps on a full-sized 19×19 board. In March 2016, it beat Lee Sedol in a five-game match, the first time a computer Go program has beaten a 9-dan professional without handicaps. Although it lost to Lee Sedol in the fourth game, Lee resigned in the final game, giving a final score of 4 games to 1 in favour of AlphaGo. In recognition of the victory, AlphaGo was awarded an honorary 9-dan by the Korea Baduk Association. The lead up and the challenge match with Lee Sedol were documented in a documentary film also titled AlphaGo, directed by Greg Kohs. It was chosen by Science as one of the Breakthrough of the Year runners-up on 22 December 2016.
At the 2017 Future of Go Summit, AlphaGo beat Ke Jie, the world No.1 ranked player at the time, in a three-game match. After this, AlphaGo was awarded professional 9-dan by the Chinese Weiqi Association. After the match between AlphaGo and Ke Jie, AlphaGo retired while DeepMind continues AI research in other areas.
AlphaGo uses a Monte Carlo tree search algorithm to find its moves based on knowledge previously "learned" by machine learning, specifically by an artificial neural network (a deep learning method) by extensive training, both from human and computer play.
Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search
Demis Hassabis et al.
Documentaries, videos and podcasts
Match 1 - Google DeepMind Challenge Match: Lee Sedol vs AlphaGo
Mar 9, 2016
Match 2 - Google DeepMind Challenge Match: Lee Sedol vs AlphaGo
Mar 10, 2016
Match 3 - Google DeepMind Challenge Match: Lee Sedol vs AlphaGo
Mar 12, 2016
Match 4 - Google DeepMind Challenge Match: Lee Sedol vs AlphaGo
Mar 13, 2016
Match 5 - Google DeepMind Challenge Match: Lee Sedol vs AlphaGo
Mar 15, 2016
AI research and application
- DeepMindDeepMind is an artificial intelligence company creating programs which use deep neural networks to teach themselves how to play a variety of games like Go and chess.
- AlphaGo ZeroAlphaGo Zero is a computer program utilizing artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques to play the game Go. AlphaGo Zero learned without using any domain specific knowledge from human experts. It started with random moves and learned through repeatedly playing against itself millions of times.
- Google is a technology company best known for its search engine. It was founded in 1998 and is headquartered in Mountain View, California.