Also, a person learned to create an artificial analog, the formula of which С8Н10N4О2, and use it in food. Caffeine has medicinal properties and is used as a stimulator of the central nervous system, causing increased activity. Most people respond to this substance by increasing energy and improving their mood.
Caffeine is found in tea, coffee, chocolate, various s drinks, and is also part of painkillers. Natural caffeine is a bitter substance to taste, but in many products, this mustard is "disguised" as a result of processing.
The main source of this substance for adolescents is energy and other soft drinks. Their "work" is felt, as a rule, for 6 hours. True, sensitivity to caffeine is an individual indicator. Usually, the younger a person, the less substance is necessary to feel his influence. Individuals who regularly consume caffeine-containing beverages eventually lose their susceptibility to this invigorating component. And this means that to achieve the effect they will need to increase the dose again and again.
Once in the body, caffeine is metabolized into dimethylxanthine derivatives (paraxanthin, theobromine, theophylline), then into monoxanthin, and then into the xanthin molecule. Other metabolic products are di- and trimethyl allantoin, uric acid, and uracil derivatives.
Caffeine is readily distributed in plasma, intercellular fluid, and within cells. It also circulates as part of extracellular adipose tissue. By the way, in smoking people, caffeine metabolism is faster. Also, differences in the speed of the process can be in people of different nationalities, which is explained by the genetic factor. But the difference in the speed of assimilation in women and men practically does not exist.
Our body can absorb these "invigorating molecules" quite quickly. But also quickly it gets rid of them. Caffeine is metabolized mainly by the liver, has a relatively short half-life. Usually, 5-7 hours are enough to get rid of half of the resulting substance. For this reason, a cup of coffee that you enjoyed before lunch will not prevent you from sleeping in the evening.
Caffeine is synthetic and natural (derived from plants). The difference between them can only be determined by laboratory. It is possible to measure the concentration of any of these substances in the body by studying saliva since this substance in the body accumulates mainly in liquids. Caffeine can enter the body through the mucous membranes of the cheeks. Chewing gums containing the substance are characterized by faster uptake than coffee, since in the form of a beverage, caffeine must first pass through the stomach and intestines, and only then enters the blood.
EFFECTS ON THE BODY
Caffeine is a product of plant origin, the highest concentration of which is contained in coffee beans, tea leaves, soft drinks, chocolate, cocoa beans.
Also found in some medications (painkillers, against allergies, colds, and for weight loss). In fact, from a chemical point of view, caffeine is an analgesic, as well as a substance that enhances the effects of other pain-relieving drugs.
Modern data on caffeine are very contradictory in the issue of the beneficial and negative impact of it on the human body.
It is believed that for healthy people 300 mg of invigorating substance per day is a normal portion that is not harmful to health. Meanwhile, in some cases, it is important to limit the consumption of the substance. Large portions (more than 700 mg per day) contribute to the excretion of calcium and magnesium from the body. Caffeine was previously thought to be one of the causes of osteoporosis. Meanwhile, recent studies have shown that calcium losses caused by caffeine from 1 cup of coffee are easily compensated for by 2 tablespoons of milk. But in people who are especially sensitive to even minor calcium losses, caffeine can serve as the basis for bone problems. For this reason, women after menopause should not abuse caffeine-containing products, since they are already at risk of osteoporosis.
Speaking of caffeine, many primarily recall coffee. But this is far from the only source of substance. Tea, cola, and other beverages also contain caffeine. And this explains why, according to studies, children aged 6-9 years consume about 25 mg of invigorating substance daily, and their parents may not even guess about it. Meanwhile, children who are sensitive to it have irritability and anxiety. Caffeine acts as a stimulant, affecting the central nervous system. In the body, this substance begins to act about 15 minutes after ingestion and lasts for up to 6 hours.
Consuming moderate doses (up to 250 mg of brewed coffee or 500 mg of cola) helps people concentrate and eliminates drowsiness. But higher doses increase heart rate, raise body temperature, increase blood flow to the skin and limbs, increase blood pressure and blood sugar, and also stimulate gastric acid secretion, act as a diuretic. With excess substance consumption, people may experience dizziness, hypoglycemia, nausea, increased breathing and heartbeat, confusion, irritability, insomnia, a change in appetite, dry mouth, and other side effects. But contrary to a common misconception, caffeine cannot neutralize alcohol in the body.