Thor, American comic strip superhero created for Marvel Comics by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby. The character, derived from the Germanic god of the same name, first appeared in Journey into Mystery no. 83 (August 1962).
Origin and Silver Age stories
Thor’s first adventure introduced readers to the doctor Donald Blake. While vacationing in Norway, Blake stumbles across an invasion force of the Stone Men of Saturn (an alien race later known as Kronans). When the startled doctor takes refuge in a nearby cave, he finds a cane, which he strikes against the wall, only to find himself dramatically changed. Blake becomes the thunder god Thor, and the cane transforms into the enchanted hammer Mjolnir. The inscription on the hammer declares, “Whosoever holds this hammer, if he be worthy, shall possess the power of Thor.” As Thor, Blake could fly and control the elements, and he possessed extraordinary strength. Mjolnir magically returned after being thrown, but if it was out of Thor’s grasp for more than one minute, Thor reverted to his civilian identity as Blake.
Neither Lee nor Kirby was consistently able to fit the Thor comic strip into their schedules for its first few years, so Lee’s brother, Larry Lieber, scripted much of the early material. After several issues, Kirby moved on to the new X-Men and Avengers titles but not before contributing to Thor’s supporting cast. Having returned to New York, Blake set up a practice with a young nurse named Jane Foster, with whom he promptly fell in love. She long remained unaware of Blake’s alter ego, however, as revealing that knowledge was strictly forbidden by Thor’s father, Odin, the ruler of the Norse gods in the distant realm of Asgard. Thor’s villainous half-brother Loki, the god of mischief, served as the strip’s most prominent recurring villain.
Thor soon accumulated a stable of more mundane foes, such as the Grey Gargoyle, Radioactive Man, the Cobra, and Mister Hyde. Thor became a founding member of the Avengers in 1963, but his solo series in Journey into Mystery began to evolve as Lee and Kirby returned in late 1963 to change the strip’s focus from Earth-bound crime-fighting to the more expansive, imaginative realm of Asgard. The creative team introduced a new series, “Tales of Asgard,” which adapted Norse legends and integrated them with the lead strip’s growing band of Asgardians. Among the most important new characters were Thor’s companions Volstagg, Fandral, and Hogun—a band collectively known as the Warriors Three—and his half-brother Balder. Other supporting characters included Heimdall, guardian of the Rainbow Bridge to Asgard, and Sif, a shield maiden who was one of Asgard’s most skilled fighters. Among the Asgardian antagonists introduced during this period were the sorceress Karnilla, Amora the Enchantress, and the axe-wielding Skurge the Executioner.
Norse legends had fascinated Kirby since childhood, and, coupled with his almost boundless imagination, they inspired some of his greatest art: astonishing battle scenes, vast cosmic vistas, and extraordinary creatures. After issue no. 125 (February 1966), Journey into Mystery was retitled Thor, and a stream of new heroes and villains appeared. A lengthy narrative introduced the Greek god Hercules, his father Zeus, and the ruler of the Netherworld, Pluto. Later stories featured the grotesque rock troll Ulik; Hela, the goddess of death; and the fire demon Surtur, all of whom conspired against Asgard. Amid all the rest, of course, there were regular plots and schemes by Loki.
The character’s origin was eventually revised to clarify the link between Blake and Thor. Wishing to instill within him a sense of humility, Odin had punished Thor by transforming him into the mortal Blake. Hence, when Blake found the cane, he transformed back into his true self, the mighty Thor. The creators used the Blake identity less and less and, by 1970, it had largely been abandoned. That was a watershed year for the feature, as it witnessed Kirby’s departure for DC Comics, where he would create the New Gods, a pantheon that drew from the same creative well as his work on Thor.
The Simonson era
Within a year, Lee too had gone, but his replacements, Gerry Conway and Len Wein with artist John Buscema, carried on in much the same tradition as Kirby and Lee. Throughout the 1970s Thor rarely strayed far from the blueprint that had been established in the Silver Age. Buscema remained the principal artist during much of this time, combining peerless draftsmanship with a strong sense of action.
Fan favourite Walt Simonson took over as writer and penciller of Thor in 1983 with issue no. 337. In his first issue, Simonson upended the established order by having Thor suffer defeat at the hands of a bizarre-looking alien called Beta Ray Bill. In a stunning twist, Bill is deemed worthy by Mjolnir and inherits the power of Thor. Bill soon returned Mjolnir to Thor, and Odin enlisted the dwarves of Nidavellir to craft the enchanted hammer Stormbringer for Bill. Simonson carried Thor from outer space to a pond in Central Park where, having been turned into a frog by the machinations of Loki, Thor leads an army of amphibians in a war against encroaching rats.
Narratives of personal redemption are a central feature of Simonson’s run, and the stakes often involve the fate of the universe itself. Most notable among these is the tale of Skurge, Thor’s longtime foe, who “stood alone at Gjallerbru” in Thor no. 362, bravely sacrificing himself to turn back the hordes of Hel. Complementing Simonson’s epic adventures was lettering by John Workman. Workman’s text was a striking visual element in itself, and his sound effects (“BADABOOM!”) became an oft-imitated hallmark of Simonson’s run. Simonson eventually turned over pencilling duties to Sal Buscema, John Buscema’s younger brother, and his run as writer concluded with Thor no. 382 (August 1987). Former Amazing Spider-Man creative team of Tom DeFalco and Ron Frenz took Simonson’s place.
The 1990s to the present
In the early 1990s DeFalco and Frenz combined Thor’s essence with a new human host, an architect named Eric Masterson, to create what was effectively a new Thor. In time, the old Thor reappeared and the Masterson incarnation, now known as Thunderstrike, spun off into his own short-lived series (1993–95). Thunderstrike also teamed up with Beta Ray Bill and a Thor of the future called Dargo in Thor Corps. After issue no. 502, as part of a company-wide late-1990s restructuring plan known as Heroes Reborn, the Thor comic was rebranded as Journey into Mystery.
In the wake of Heroes Reborn, Thor was split apart from his human host by Odin, who feared that his son had become too attached to Midgard (Earth). Odin then died, and his almost limitless power was transferred to his son, who became Thor, Lord of Asgard. Thereafter, Ragnarok, the “Twilight of the Gods,” took place, destroying Asgard and seemingly wiping out the Asgardians. When Thor entered into a limbo-like void, his alternate Don Blake identity reappeared on Earth. Finding Mjolnir, Blake used it to enter the void and reunite with Thor.
In this new story line, initially written by J. Michael Straczynski, Thor returned to Earth and used the Odin power to recreate Asgard as a city floating over the town of Broxton, Oklahoma. The culmination of the “Dark Reign” event saw Norman Osborn (alter ego of the Spider-Man villain Green Goblin), who had risen to power in the U.S. government, launch an attack on the new Asgard and destroy it. Thor and his Avengers allies defeated Osborn and his forces. Marvel launched a new The Mighty Thor comics series, written by Matt Fraction and drawn by Olivier Coipel, in 2011.
The following year, Jason Aaron and a rotating cast of artists began a critically heralded run that centred on Thor facing a crisis of confidence unlike any in his comic history. Confronted with the idea that mortals would be better off without gods, Thor deems himself “unworthy” and is no longer able to wield Mjolnir. The mantle passes to Thor’s longtime ally and love interest Jane Foster, with the text on Mjolnir changing to read “Whosoever holds this hammer, if she be worthy, shall possess the power of Thor.” The “unworthy” Thor, now calling himself Odinson, embarks on a quest to redeem himself, while Foster confronts threats to both Midgard and Asgard while also fighting breast cancer that is ravaging her mortal body. Overcoming resistance from the Asgardian old guard, led by Odin, Foster solidifies her claim to the mantle of Thor. Every time she transforms into her Asgardian aspect, however, she effectively undoes the cancer treatment that her mortal body has received. Armed with the knowledge that taking up Mjolnir will lead to her death, Foster nevertheless enters combat with a god-killing beast called Mangog. She defeats Mangog but Mjolnir is destroyed in the process, causing Foster to revert to her mortal form and succumb to cancer. She is promptly revived through the combined efforts of Odin and Odinson, however, and she hands a fragment of the shattered Mjolnir to Odinson, telling him that “there must always be a Thor.”
Thor in other media
Thor first appeared in animation in the 1966 Marvel Super Heroes TV series, based directly on the stories and artwork in Lee and Kirby’s comics. Later animated projects included The Super Hero Squad Show (2009–11) and The Avengers: Earth’s Mightiest Heroes (2010–12). Marvel’s thunder god made the transition to the big screen with the premiere of Thor in 2011. The film was directed by Kenneth Branagh and cast Chris Hemsworth as Thor and Tom Hiddleston in a scene-stealing turn as Loki. Hemsworth returned as Thor in later Marvel Cinematic Universe projects, including The Avengers (2012), Thor: The Dark World (2013), Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015), Thor: Ragnarok (2017), Avengers: Infinity War (2018), and Avengers: Endgame (2019).