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SQL

SQL

Language in a computer designed for the retrieval and management of data in relational database management systems as well as database schema and access control management

Representational state transfer (REST) is a software architectural style that was created to guide the design and development of the architecture for the World Wide Web. REST defines a set of constraints for how the architecture of an Internet-scale distributed hypermedia system, such as the Web, should behave. The REST architectural style emphasises the scalability of interactions between components, uniform interfaces, independent deployment of components, and the creation of a layered architecture to facilitate caching components to reduce user-perceived latency, enforce security, and encapsulate legacy systems.

REST has been employed throughout the software industry and is a widely accepted set of guidelines for creating stateless, reliable web APIs. A web API that obeys the REST constraints is informally described as RESTful. RESTful web APIs are typically loosely based on HTTP methods to access resources via URL-encoded parameters and the use of JSON or XML to transmit data.

"Web resources" were first defined on the World Wide Web as documents or files identified by their URLs. Today, the definition is much more generic and abstract, and includes every thing, entity, or action that can be identified, named, addressed, handled, or performed in any way on the Web. In a RESTful Web service, requests made to a resource's URI elicit a response with a payload formatted in HTML, XML, JSON, or some other format. For example, the response can confirm that the resource state has been changed. The response can also include hypertext links to related resources. The most common protocol for these requests and responses is HTTP. It provides operations (HTTP methods) such as GET, POST, PUT, and DELETE. By using a stateless protocol and standard operations, RESTful systems aim for fast performance, reliability, and the ability to grow by reusing components that can be managed and updated without affecting the system as a whole, even while it is running.

The goal of REST is to increase performance, scalability, simplicity, modifiability, visibility, portability, and reliability. This is achieved through following REST principles such as a client–server architecture, statelessness, cacheability, use of a layered system, support for code on demand, and using a uniform interface. These principles must be followed for the system to be classified as RESTful.

Timeline

February 21, 1987
Since then, the standard has been revised to include a larger set of features. Despite the existence of standards, most SQL code requires at least some changes before being ported to different database systems.
1986
SQL became a standard of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
1970
SQL was initially developed at IBM by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce after learning about the relational model from Edgar F. Codd.

Further Resources

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date

A guided tour of the Microsoft Command Shell

Web

October 24, 2005

History Of SQL

Web

December 9, 2019

ISO 9075:1987

Web

April 19, 1989

News

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Title
Author
Date
Publisher
Description
Liu Jia
August 31, 2021
phys.org
Many measurements are limited by standard quantum limit (SQL). SQL is defined as the measured noise levels set by quantum mechanics. Quantum entanglement can be used to beat SQL and approach an ultimate limit called Heisenberg limit (HL). Sub-SQL measurements have been realized in many systems under extreme conditions and sensors in these systems are not suitable for realistic measurements under ambient conditions.
Daniel Robinson
July 16, 2021
ComputerWeekly.com
For any enterprises looking to build cloud-native applications, an understanding of microservices is essential
MATT O'BRIEN AP Technology Writer
July 13, 2021
ABC News
For 21 years, the software company Kaseya labored in relative obscurity -- at least until cybercriminals exploited it in early July for a massive ransomware attack that snarled businesses around the world and escalated U.S.-Russia diplomatic tensions
By MATT O'BRIEN
July 13, 2021
AP NEWS
For 21 years, the software company Kaseya labored in relative obscurity -- at least until cybercriminals exploited it in early July for a massive ransomware attack that snarled businesses around the world and escalated U.S.-Russia diplomatic tensions.
Romain Dillet
July 5, 2021
TechCrunch
Meet Tinybird, a new startup that helps developers build data products at scale without having to worry about infrastructure, query time and all those annoying issues that come up once you deal with huge data sets. The company ingests data at scale, lets you transform it using SQL and then exposes that data through API [...]
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