Raspberry vulgaris is a deciduous semi-shrub with a perennial rhizome, from which two—year aboveground stems 1.5-2.5 m high develop.
The rhizome is sinuous, woody, with multiple subordinate roots forming a powerful branched system.
The stems are erect. The shoots of the first year are herbaceous, green with a bluish bloom, juicy, covered with thin, usually frequent miniature thorns. In the second year, the shoots become woody and turn brown, immediately after fruiting they dry up, but new stems grow from the same root the next year.
The leaves are oval, alternate, petiolate, complex, with 3-7 ovate leaflets, dark green above, whitish below, pubescent with fine hairs.
The flowers are white, about 1 cm across, collected in small racemose inflorescences, located on the tops of the stems or in the axils of the leaves. The petals are shorter than the lobes of the calyx. In central Russia, raspberries bloom from June to July, sometimes up to August.
The fruits are small hairy drupes, fused on the flower into a complex fruit. The fruits are usually red (from pink to rich burgundy), but there are varieties of yellow and even black (blackberry-shaped). Fruits usually appear in the second year. In the first year, two flower buds are only laid on the replacement shoots in the leaf axils, from which fruit twigs grow in the second year. In the southern regions, the fruits also appear on the shoots of the first year in mid-autumn. There are also repair varieties of raspberries adapted to the conditions of the middle zone of Russia, capable of bearing fruit on the shoots of the first year.
Fruits contain up to 11% sugars (glucose, fructose, pentose), traces of essential oil, pectin and protein substances, mucus; vitamins C, A, B; 1-2% organic acids (malic, citric, tartaric, salicylic, etc.), alcohols (tartaric, isoamyl), ketones (acetoin, diacetyl, β-ionone), anthocyanin cyanine, catechins (d-catechin, l-epigallocatechin) ; up to 0.3% tannins.
Seeds contain up to 22% of fatty oil.
Meaning and application
Raspberry - whole (Rubus idaeus).jpg
Raspberry - halved (Rubus idaeus).jpg
Main article: Raspberry (berry)
Raspberry fruits are consumed both fresh and frozen or used to make jam, jelly, marmalade, juices, as well as berry puree. Raspberry wines, liqueurs, liqueurs, liqueurs have high taste qualities.
Raspberry fruit (Latin Fructus Rubi idaei) is used as a medicinal raw material. The fruits are harvested mature, without pedicels and flowering. Dried after preliminary drying in dryers at a temperature of 50-60 ° C, spreading the raw material in a thin layer on fabric or paper. In medicine, dried fruits are used as a diaphoretic, syrup - to improve the taste of medicines.
In cosmetology, raspberry seed oil (raspberry seed oil) is used, extracted using the first cold pressing without subsequent refining. This oil is suitable for all types of facial skin, including the area around the eyes and the skin of the lips, for the decollete and the skin of the hands (cuticles and nails), as well as for hair.
In folk medicine, fruits and leaves are used for colds, flu, as an antipyretic and diaphoretic.
Honey plant. Due to the fact that the raspberry flower is tipped down, the bee extracting nectar is, as it were, under a natural canopy and can work even during a fine warm rain. Bees receive 70 kg of honey from nectar collected from 1 ha of flowering forest raspberries, and 50 kg from 1 ha of garden raspberries. Raspberry honey contains 41.34% levulose and 33.57% glucose, has a pleasant smell and taste. Bees, collecting nectar, increase the yield of raspberries by 60-100%.
Summer fruits are the bear's favorite food. Berries in August and September are eaten by grouse. It is eaten by deer and cattle, goats, sheep, sometimes pigs, horses do not eat.
The leaves can serve as a substitute for tea. They are crushed by hands, the leaves secrete juice and turn black, and then they are dried on the oven