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Oreo

Oreo

Sandwich cookie made by kraft

Oreo is a cookie consisting of two chocolate-sugar black discs and a sweet cream filling between them. It is produced in the U.S. by the Nabisco Confectionery Company. The Oreo cookie has become the best-selling and most popular cookie in the United States since it was introduced in 1912.

20th century

"Oreo Biscuit was first developed and produced in 1912 by the National Biscuit Company (now known as Nabisco) in a factory in Chelsea, a Manhattan neighborhood. This complex is now called Chelsea Market and is located on Ninth Avenue between 15th and 16th Streets. Today this part of Ninth Avenue is known as "Oreo Way." The name Oreo was trademarked on March 14, 1912. This brand was created in imitation of the Hydrox brand of cookies that the Sunshine Company had been making since 1908.

Initially, the appearance of the cookies included the following elements: a wreath ornament around the edge and "OREO" written in the center. In the United States, such cookies were sold for 25 cents a pound in tin boxes with a clear glass lid, which was an innovation at the time.

In 1921, the Oreo Cookie was renamed the Oreo Sandwich. In 1924, a new cookie design was developed. In the 1920s, Oreo cookies with lemon filling were available in the United States for a time, but they were discontinued. In 1948, the Oreo Sandwich was renamed the Oreo Creme Sandwich, and in 1974 the name was replaced by the Oreo Chocolate Sandwich Cookie.

The modern design of the Oreo cookie was developed in 1952 by William A. Turner, who incorporated the Nabisco logo into the design.

The modern Oreo cookie filling was developed by Sam Porcello, chief food technology officer at Nabisco. Porcello held five patents that were directly related to his work on Oreo. He also created a line of Oreo cookies coated in dark and white chocolate. Porcello retired in 1993.

In the mid-1990s, Nabisco replaced melted pork fat with partially hydrogenated vegetable oil in the preparation of the filling, in compliance with health regulations.

21st Century

Since January 2006, the trans fats in Oreo cookies have been replaced by non-hydrogenated vegetable oil.

In 2008, Nabisco launched a marketing program promoting Oreo cookies with a game called the Double Stuf Racing League, short for DSRL (a championship Oreo cookie eating game that involves getting ahead of your opponent to remove half of a double stuf cookie, lick off the cream filling, and then eat the rest with milk). The game was introduced the week before Super Bowl XLII. This contest was supported by soccer brothers Peyton and Eli Manning. Sisters Venus and Serena Williams also joined and challenged the Mannings, their contest was featured in a commercial on January 18, 2009. Later, an ad campaign for "Golden Double Stuf Oreo" cookies was launched, this time the Manning brothers were challenged by billionaire Donald Trump and "Double Trump", played by comic actor Darrel Hammond, this competition took place on January 24, 2010. The Mannings won both contests. The new ad campaign revolves around the "Hooded Menace" seeking to take over the Double Stuf Racing League, and Eli Manning along with Stuffy (the DSRL mascot) needing help, this commercial aired on September 14, 2010. Six days later, it was announced that Shaquille O'Neal and Apolo Ono had joined the DSRL along with Eli Manning and Venus Williams.

In April 2011, Oreo announced a special batch of blue-filled Oreo cookies as part of an advertising campaign for the 3D animated film "Rio" released that year. The advertising campaign involved stickers inside each pack of cookies. There were also two contests to collect an entire album of stickers and win prizes, including a trip to Rio de Janeiro. The advertising campaign ended on May 30, 2011, it ran in Ecuador, Peru and Colombia.

In June 2012, the Oreo brand ran an ad in support of Gay Pride month featuring Oreo cookies filled with different colors of the rainbow. No such cookies were actually produced and were not on sale. The ad garnered some negative publicity, but Kraft backed it up by stating, "Kraft Foods is proud that throughout its history it has been known for its respect for personal diversity and individuality. We believe the Oreo ads are an interesting reflection of our values." During 2012, the Gay Pride ads were followed by a series of ads celebrating other holidays and events, including a red, white and blue-filled Oreo cookie in honor of Bastille Day, a track of cookie crumbs as an image of the Delta Aquarid meteor shower and an unevenly bitten cookie in honor of Shark Week.

Etymology

The origin of the name Oreo is unknown, but there are many theories, including the formation from the French word for "gold" ("Or"), as the cookies originally had a golden package, or from the Greek word "Oreo," meaning "beautiful." Some[who?] believe that the cookies were named Oreo because the name is short and easy to pronounce.

International distribution.

Oreo cookies are sold worldwide through a variety of sales and marketing tools. In the UK since May 2008, following the supply of Oreo cookies (called Oreo cookies in the UK) to supermarket chain Sainsbury's, Kraft decided to fully launch the sale of Oreo in the United Kingdom, packaging the cookies in more familiar round packs to the British. The launch was accompanied by a £4.5 million television advertising campaign. The campaign was based on the advertising slogan "twist, lick, dunk". Kraft had recently partnered with McDonald's to sell Oreo McFlurry cookies (already on sale in many countries) through a number of McDonald's restaurants as part of the annual "Great Tastes of America" advertising campaign. The KFC chain in the U.K. also sold an Oreo-flavored Krushem drink. The British Oreo website lists a slightly different ingredient list than the American one. Unlike the American version, the British Oreo cookies originally contained dry whey, so these cookies were not suitable for people who do not consume dairy products. Because the dry whey was derived from cheese made with rennet enzyme from the stomach of calves, British Oreo cookies were also not suitable for vegetarians. On December 6, 2011, Kraft announced the launch of Oreo cookies in the UK. Then Cadbury's factory in Sheffield, South Yorkshire was chosen for the first time. Production began in May 2013. Since 2015, Oreo cookies have been produced in Russia at the Bolshevik factory.

Production

According to Kim McMiller, deputy director of consumer relations, a two-step process is used to produce the cookies. Initially, a rotary cookie molder is used to shape the dough into a round shape and then place it in a 300-foot (approximately 91.5 m) long oven. Most of today's Oreo products are made in a factory in Richmond, Virginia. Oreo cookies for the Asian market are made in Pakistan, Indonesia, India and China. Oreo cookies for Europe are made in Spain, Ukraine, and since September 2015 are produced in Russia. Oreo cookies sold in Australia are made in China or Spain, depending on the flavor. The Canadian version includes coconut oil and is only sold in that region. Production of Oreo cookies in Pakistan began in early 2014 at the Continental Biscuits Limited plant in Sukkur with a collaboration between Mondelēz International of America and Continental Biscuits Limited of Pakistan.

Types

The traditional Oreo cookie consists of two chocolate discs and a layer between them, but many other varieties of Oreo have been produced throughout the history of Oreo, and the list below only gives an idea of the most famous and recent ones; some of these varieties can only be found in certain countries. In the United States, the following varieties are best known.

Use of "oreo" as a slur

Oreo cookies, due to their almost-black cookies and white filling, have often been used in popular culture as a metaphor for relations between people of color and white people. In the 1976 movie, A Star Is Born, Barbra Streisand's character Esther Hoffman is the white central member of The Oreos, a three-girl singing group, between black actresses Venetta Fields and Clydie King.

In 2021, the chair of the Lamar County Democrats, Gary O'Connor, compared South Carolina Senator Tim Scott, the only African-American Republican in the United States Senate, to an Oreo after Scott gave the Republican response to Joe Biden's joint address to Congress. Amid fierce criticism, O'Connor apologized for his remarks and offered his resignation, but the Lamar County Democrats chose not to accept his resignation and O'Connor wrote a public letter of apology for his remarks.

Timeline

Further Resources

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News

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