The region is located in the Northern Black Sea region , in the basin of the Southern Bug River . It borders in the west with Odessa , in the north - with Kirovograd , in the east - with Kherson and Dnepropetrovsk regions. In the south it is washed by the waters of the Black Sea .
The territory of the region is a plain, which gradually decreases from north to south to the Black Sea , the height is 20-40 m. For the most part, the territory belongs to the Black Sea Lowland ; the north is occupied by the spurs of the right-bank Dnieper Upland (height up to 240 m) with a highly dissected network of ravines , gullies and valleys . The highest point (255.6 m) is located northeast of the village of Elizavetovka, Bratsk district . Wide interfluve spaces are characterized here by the presence of extensive rounded depressions (" pods "), which in springtime are filled with water and form temporary lakes.
Geology and minerals
The northern part of the Nikolaev region is occupied by the Ukrainian crystalline shield , consisting of hard rocks - granites , gneisses , quartzites and others. The southern part is located on the Black Sea depression .
Among the minerals, building materials ( granites , limestones , marl , kaolin , tripoli , gypsum , quartz sands , clays ) have a certain industrial value, there are also deposits of graphite , brown coal , peat . Sources of mineral waters and therapeutic mud have been identified . The region is insufficiently provided with mineral resources.
The northwestern part lies in the forest-steppe region , the southeastern part lies in the steppes . The climate is temperate continental . Summers are hot, windy, with frequent dry winds ; the average temperature of the warmest month (July) is +23…+21 °C. Winter is not snowy, relatively cold; the average temperature of the coldest month (January) is −3…−5 °C. Annual rainfall ranges from 300-350 mm in the south to 450 mm in the north. The maximum precipitation is in summer, falling mainly in the form of showers. The growing season averages about 210 days.
The Black Sea coast is indented by estuaries ( Bugsky , Berezansky , Tuzlovsky , Tiligulsky , Dneprovsky ). The main rivers are Southern Bugcrossing the western part of the region from northwest to southeast, Ingul (left tributary of the Southern Bug) and Ingulets (right tributary of the Dnieper ).
In the northern part of the region, ordinary chernozems predominate , in the south they are replaced by southern chernozems and dark chestnut, weakly and medium solonetzic chernozems. There are solonetzes , solonetzic-salty soils, swampy marshes and pat bogs . In the riverine and coastal areas - sandy and sandy loamy soils, in some places turning into loose sands.
The vegetation is mainly of the fescue-feather grass steppes, in the river valleys - meadow. Almost the entire territory is plowed up. Natural steppe vegetation has been preserved only along the slopes of ravines and gullies. About 2% of the territory of the region is occupied by forests and shrubs (mainly oak , aspen , maple , black poplar , birch bark , pine ). The area of field-protective forest belts is about 29.3 thousand hectares. The Katerinovsky and Voznesensky forests are under state protection.
The animal world is characterized by a fox , a hare , an ordinary hamster , a ground squirrel ; from birds - quail , bustard , pheasant , gray partridge , wild ducks and gray goose , sandpipers , steppe and field larks and others; gobies , anchovy , mullet , sabrefish , mackerel , sturgeons and others are of commercial importance in the Black Sea , carp in the rivers ,bream , pike perch and others.
Main article: History of Mykolaiv Oblast
Anniversary coin of the NBU is dedicated to Mykolaiv region
The Anetovskaya culture of the Late Paleolithic is named after the village of Anetovka.
In 331 BC. e. Olbia unsuccessfully tried to conquer the commander of Alexander the Great Zopyrion .
In the first centuries of our era , settlements of the Scythians, Sarmatians and Greek colonies appeared on the lands of the Northern Black Sea region .
Burial 11 of barrow 11 near the village of Yablonya in the basin of the Berezan River belongs to the Sivashovka-type monuments of the 2nd half of the 7th century - the beginning of the 8th century  .
The territory between the Southern Bug and the Dnieper became part of Russia after the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774 , and the territory to the west of the Southern Bug - after the conclusion of the Iasi Peace in 1792.
The Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic was proclaimed on January 30 (February 12), 1918 at the IV Regional Congress of Soviets of Workers' Deputies of the Donetsk and Krivoy Rog basins.
In 1918-1920, the territory of the modern region was subjected to foreign military intervention and became the scene of civil war battles . At the end of the war, Nikolaevshchina became part of the Ukrainian SSR , in 1922 its territory was part of the Odessa province , in 1923-1930 it was divided between the Nikolaev , Pervomaisky , Kherson and Odessa districts , but in 1932-1937 it became part of the Odessa region . 
On September 22, 1937, the Central Executive Committee of the USSR adopted a resolution on the disaggregation of Kharkov , Kiev , Vinnitsa and Odessa regions. Odessa region was divided into Odessa and Nikolaev.
The structure of the Nikolaev region included three cities of regional subordination - Nikolaev , Kherson and Kirovo (now Kropyvnytskyi ), as well as 38 districts, including 29 districts from the Odessa region and 9 from the Dnepropetrovsk region: Adjamsky, Bashtansky, Bereznegovatsky, Berislavsky, Bobrinetsky, Varvarovsky, Veliko Aleksandrovsky, Velikolepetikhsky, Vityazevsky, Vladimirovsky, Golopristansky, Gornostaevsky, Dolinsky, Elanetsky, Elisavetgradsky, Znamensky, im. Fritz Heckert, Kazankovsky, Kalinindorfsky, Kompaneevsky, Kakhovsky, Novgorodkovsky, Novobugsky, Novovorontsovsky, Novoodessky, Novoprazhsky, Novotroitsky, Alexandria, Ochakovsky, Petrovsky, Privolnyansky, Skadovsky, Snigirevsky, Tiligulo-Berezansky, Ustinovsky, Khorlovsky, Tsyurupinsky and Chaplinsky.
After the creation of the Kirovograd region on January 10, 1939, 13 districts of the Nikolaev region were transferred to its composition: Adzhamsky, Bobrinetsky, Vityazevsky, Dolinsky, Elisavetgradsky, Znamensky, Kirovograd rural, Kompaneevsky, Novgorodkovsky, Novoprazhsky, Alexandria, Petrovsky, Ustinovsky. In the same year, Belozersky, Kherson and Nikolaev rural areas were created as part of the Nikolaev region, and the district named after. Fritz Heckert is abolished.
During the period of fascist occupation, the territory of the Nikolaev region in its current borders was divided between Germany and Romania . The western districts were included in the Goltyansky and Ochakovsky uyezds of the Romanian Governorate of Transnistria , while the areas located east of the Southern Bug River were included in the " Nikolaev " and " Tavria " general okrugs .
On March 30, 1944, by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR “On the formation of the Kherson region as part of the Ukrainian SSR” , the Kherson region was created , in connection with which the city of Kherson and Beloozersky, Berislavsky, Bolshe-Aleksandrovsky, Golopristansky, Gornostaevsky, Kalanchaksky were separated from the Nikolaev region , Kalinindorf, Kakhovsky, Novo-Vorontsovsky, Skadovsky, Kherson, Tsyurupinsky and Chaplinsky districts. By the same decree, Arbuzinsky, Blagodatnovsky, Bratsky, Veselinovsky and Voznesensky districts, separated from the Odessa region of the Ukrainian SSR , were included in the Nikolaev region .
On September 12, 1944, after the renaming of the Nikolaevsky district to Zhovtnevy, the center of the Nikolaevsky district was transferred from the city of Nikolaev to the village. Zhovtneve.
December 5, 1944 the center of the Blagodatnovsky district was transferred from the village. Thanks in with. Lysaya Gora, and the Blagodatnovsky district was renamed Lysogorsky.
On August 8, 1945, as a result of the disaggregation of the Varvarovsky and Tiligulo-Berezansky districts, the Shirokolanovsky district was created with a center in the village. Shirokolanovka.
On February 17, 1954, 5 districts of the Odessa region were included in the Nikolaev region: Velikovradievsky, Domanevsky, Krivoozersky, Mostovskoy and Pervomaisky.
On June 7, 1957, the Shirokolanovsky district was abolished, and its village councils were transferred to the Varvarovsky and Veselinovsky districts. On January 21, 1959, Vladimirovsky, Lysogorsky, Mostovsky and Privolnyansky districts were abolished.
In January 1963 , after the consolidation of the rural areas of the Nikolaev region, the Bashtansky, Bratsky, Voznesensky, Domanevsky, Nikolaevsky, Novobugsky, Novoodessky, Pervomaisky and Snigirevsky districts were created. January 4, 1965, due to changes in the administrative zoning of the Ukrainian SSR, the number of districts of the Nikolaev region increased to 16. Bereznegovatsky, Veselinovsky, Elanetsky, Zhovtnevy, Kazankovsky, Krivoozersky and Ochakovsky districts were created.
On December 8, 1966, the Bratsky, Krivoozersky, Nikolaevsky, Ochakovsky and Pervomaisky districts were subdivided, as a result of which Arbuzinsky, Berezansky and Vradievsky districts were created. On March 3, 1988 , after the transfer of the Belousovsky village council to the Veliko Aleksandrovsky district of the Kherson region, the Nikolaev region acquired modern borders.