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Moscow uprising of 1648

Moscow uprising of 1648

Rebellion

The Salt Rebellion of 1648 (Moscow Uprising, Moscow Mutiny of 1648) is the name adopted in historiography for the protest of some of the Moscow posadets("Posadzhane", "Posadchane", "Posadsky"), in Russia in the 15-18 c. subsidized (so-called black), mainly trade-handicraft, population of posad and tsar's slobodas, in the middle of the 17th century - 1775 one class. In the 17th c. - 1775 one of estates. They were mentioned in sources since 1440-th. They lived in posad. community, were tied by a mutual guarantee. They paid tribute, direct taxes according to the system of soosha writing and allotment, from 1724 the capitation tax. They were subjected to construction, road, post, recruit and other duties. They were involved in gratuitous service at custom houses, circular court), supported by Streltsy, against the government of Boyar B.I. Morozov. It was caused mainly by unsuccessful economic policy, in particular by the demand to pay in addition for 1646-47 direct taxes - streletskiye and yamskiye money, instead of which in those years an indirect salt tax was imposed (amounted approximately to 50% of its market price, but did not give the treasury the planned receipts). It was provoked by widespread abuses of the heads of prikazes [the most odious figure was the head of zemsky prikaz, L. S. Pleshcheev (from family of Pleshcheevs)] and prikaznikh people. It began in 1(11) June, when posadsky people tried to raise petitions to tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, who was traveling from Trinity-Sergiev monastery to Moscow (petitioners were beaten by streltsy, a few people were arrested). On June 2 (12) the tsar who was returning from Sretensky Monastery to the Moscow Kremlin was again surrounded by a crowd which demanded to release the arrested and to punish the offenders. The Moscow streltsy garrison, whose salaries had been reduced, refused to suppress the unrest on Morozov's order. On the same day pogroms occurred in the city, during which N. I. Chistoy (who was considered an initiator of introduction of salt dues) was killed, the courtyards of Morozov, Princes N. I. Odoyevsky, A. M. Lvov and others were plundered, the next day there were fires (some thousand courtyards inside and outside of White City were burnt down). The clergy and members of Boyarskoy Duma were not able to put an end to T. B. Alexei Mikhailovich was forced to turn out a mob to kill Pleshcheyev, and then punish his "intercessors": the head of Pushkar order okolnitchy P. T. Trakhaniotov [executed 5(15) June for "treason and Moscow burn," but acquitted posthumously] and Morozov [12(22) June exiled from Moscow to Kirillo-Belozersk mon, but returned in the fall of the same year]. The party of the highest strata of Muscovites and noble electors (gradovye), who came to the capital, took advantage of S. B. to improve their situation. On June 10(20) they delivered a joint petition to the tsar, demanding, under the threat of new unrest, to carry out the judicial and legal reforms. Convened on July 16(26) Zemsky Sobor decided to meet the basic requirements of the nobility and posadets (taken into account in the preparation of the Sobor Code of 1649).

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