Lobbying is a type of activity that involves the influence of individuals and representatives of state and non-state organizations on international organizations or government officials in order to achieve the adoption (or non-acceptance) of certain decisions. In the Encyclopedia Britannica, "lobby" refers to any attempt by an individual or a group of private interests to influence the decisions of the authorities.
The history of lobbying:
The word “lobbying” for the first time was recorded in written language in 1553. It was used to indicate the walking areas in the monastery. A century later, in 1640, this word already meant a room for walking in the House of Commons of England. Gradually, the term began to be used in other countries, in particular in the USA. It is believed that lobbying began to relate directly to politics two centuries later in the USA, where the term “lobbying” began to mean buying votes for money in Congress.
Later, the term "lobbying" began to mean attempts by various stakeholders in various ways to influence the processes of developing and making any decisions. Experts correctly emphasize that lobbying is often associated with bribes, gray schemes, fraud and crime, and lobbyists are perceived as crooks in expensive suits with suitcases full of money.
Nowadays, lobbying is often associated with bribes, frauds and crime. In most countries, lobbying is officially prohibited. However, laws often do not prevent individuals from promoting different interests. There are also a number of countries where lobbying is allowed at the legislative level.
Lobbyists are usually divided into several key groups:
- Political. These are primarily financial, economic and social groups that achieve the necessary influence through participation in political struggle and election campaigns.
- Social. Most of social lobbyists work in trade unions. Their lobbying potential is directly proportional to the economic importance of the industry they represent. Social lobbying can be characterized as protecting the interests of groups in the field of health and social security.
- Economic. Economic lobbyists use various economic measures to put pressure on government decision-making processes.
- Regional. Regional lobbyists are trying to get certain benefits and advantages for their territories and regions.
- Foreign. Foreign lobbyists protect the interests of foreign individuals, companies, governments and organizations. Usually these are foreign groups with the same interests or national communities.