Harald V (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈhɑ̂rːɑɫ dɛn ˈfɛ̂mtə]; born 21 February 1937) is the King of Norway. He acceded to the throne on 17 January 1991.
Harald was the third child and only son of King Olav V and Princess Märtha of Sweden. He was second in the line of succession at the time of his birth, behind his father. In 1940, as a result of the German occupation during World War II, the royal family went into exile. Harald spent part of his childhood in Sweden and the United States. He returned to Norway in 1945, and subsequently studied for periods at the University of Oslo, the Norwegian Military Academy, and Balliol College, Oxford.
Following the death of his grandfather Haakon VII in 1957, Harald became crown prince as his father became king. A keen sportsman, he represented Norway in sailing at the 1964, 1968, and 1972 Olympic Games, and later became patron of World Sailing. Harald married Sonja Haraldsen in 1968, their relationship having initially been controversial due to her status as a commoner. The couple have two children, Märtha Louise and Haakon. Harald became king following his father's death in 1991, with Haakon becoming his heir apparent.
He is a great-grandson of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom and second cousin of Elizabeth II.
Prince Harald with his mother Crown Princess Märtha
Prince Harald was born at the Skaugum estate during the reign of his grandfather King Haakon VII and was baptised in the Royal Chapel of the Royal Palace in Oslo on 31 March 1937 by Bishop Johan Lunde. His godparents were: his paternal grandparents King Haakon VII and Queen Maud of Norway; his maternal grandparents Prince Carl and Princess Ingeborg of Sweden; King Leopold III of Belgium; Queen Mary and King George VI of the United Kingdom; and Crown Princess Ingrid of Denmark. His parents already had two daughters, Princess Ragnhild and Princess Astrid.
At the time of Harald's birth, he was 2nd in line of succession to the Norwegian throne following his father, Crown Prince Olav; and also was 16th in line of succession to the British throne as a descendant of King Edward VII through his paternal grandmother, Queen Maud.
In 1940 the entire royal family had to flee Oslo because of the German invasion. It was deemed safer for the family to split up. The King and Crown Prince Olav would remain in Norway and the Crown Princess was to make her way to Sweden with the three children. The latter party reached Sweden on the night of 10 April, but although Crown Princess Märtha was Swedish-born, they encountered problems at the border station. According to Princess Astrid and others who were present, they were admitted only after the driver threatened to ram the border gate. Another account does not describe the escape so dramatically. However, when the King and Crown Prince inquired of Swedish foreign minister Christian Günther whether they could sleep one night in Sweden without being interned, their request was refused.
Harald spent the following days in Sälen before moving to Prince Carl Bernadotte's home in Frötuna on 16 April. On 26 April the group moved to Drottningholm in Stockholm. King Gustaf V has been accounted to have had an amicable relationship with his Norwegian guests, but the topic of the war in Norway was not to be raised. However, influential Swedish politicians, including Minister of Justice Westman, wanted the Crown Princess and Prince Harald to be sent back to Norway so he could be proclaimed King by the Germans. After the King and Crown Prince had to leave Norway on 7 June they felt Sweden might not be the best place for the rest of the family, and started planning for them to go to the United States. On 17 August the Crown Princess and her children left for the United States from Petsamo, Finland, aboard the United States Army transport ship American Legion.
Harald and his mother and sisters lived in Washington, D.C. during the war, while his father, Crown Prince Olav, and his grandfather, King Haakon, stayed in London with the Norwegian government-in-exile. One of the notable events he remembers from that time is standing behind Franklin D. Roosevelt when he was sworn in for his fourth term on the South Portico of the White House in 1945. Such childhood experiences are reflected in a trace of an American accent when he speaks English. The Doris Kearns Goodwin book No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt and the Home Front in World War II contains a picture of the King (then Prince) playing with FDR's dog, Fala, on the North Lawn of the White House in 1944.
Harald visited Norwegian servicemen training in the United States. The prince also made visits outside America, travelling north to visit Norwegian personnel at the training base "Little Norway" in Ontario, Canada. He attended The White Hall Country School from 1943. Prince Harald returned to Norway with his family at the war's end in 1945.
In the autumn of 1945 he was enrolled in third grade of Smestad skole as the first member of the royal family to attend a public (state) school. Amidst this when he was only 17 years old in 1954, his mother died of cancer. The Crown Princess's death was a tremendous loss for him and his family as well as for Norway, and he named his daughter Märtha to honour her memory. Four years later in 1958 he would lose his maternal grandmother Princess Ingeborg of Denmark.
Prince Harald as a student in the Cavalry Officers' Candidate School, Trandum
In 1955 he graduated from Oslo katedralskole and in the autumn of that year, Harald began studies at the University of Oslo. He later attended the Cavalry Officers' Candidate School at Trandum, followed by enrollment at the Norwegian Military Academy, from which he graduated in 1959. On 21 September 1957 at the death of his grandfather, Harald became crown prince at the age of 20 and he attended the Council of State for the first time six days later and took the oath to the Constitution of Norway on 21 February 1958. In the same year, he also served as regent in the King's absence for the first time.
Crown Prince Harald with Australian Prime Minister John Gorton in 1970.
In 1960, Harald entered Balliol College, Oxford where he studied history, economics and politics. He was a keen rower during his student days at Oxford and was taught to row by fellow student and friend Nick Bevan, later a leading British school rowing coach. In 1960, he also made his first official journey abroad, visiting the United States in connection with the fiftieth anniversary of the American Scandinavian Foundation. An avid sailor, Harald represented Norway in the yachting events of the Summer Olympics in Tokyo in 1964, Mexico City in 1968, and Munich in 1972. The Crown Prince carried the Norwegian flag at the opening parade of the 1964 Summer Olympics. Harald is an honorary president of the International Soling Association.
Harald married a commoner, Sonja Haraldsen, at Oslo Domkirke in Oslo on 29 August 1968. The pair had dated for nine years, but Olav was reluctant to allow his son to marry a commoner. Olav only relented when Harald told his father that if he was not allowed to marry Sonja he would not marry at all. This would have ended the reign of his family and the Norwegian monarchy, as Harald was the sole heir to the throne. The couple have two children, Princess Märtha Louise and Crown Prince Haakon, heir apparent to the Norwegian throne.
On the death of his father on 17 January 1991, Harald succeeded automatically to the Norwegian throne. He became the first Norwegian-born monarch since Olav IV died in 1387, a gap of 604 years. Harald is the sixth King of Norway to bear that name, and the first in 855 years. The five other kings who have borne the name are Harald Fairhair, Harald Greycloak, Harald Bluetooth, Harald Hardrada, and Harald Gille. Harald Bluetooth is usually not given a number in the Norwegian list of kings, therefore Harald is 'only' numbered as Harald V. King Harald made the decision to use his grandfather's royal motto, "Alt for Norge". The King also chose to continue the tradition of royal benediction, a tradition that had been introduced with his father, and was consecrated together with Queen Sonja in the Nidaros Cathedral on 23 June 1991.
The reign of King Harald has been marked by modernization and reform for the Norwegian Royal family. The King has cooperated closely with Queen Sonja and the Crown Prince in making the royal household more open to the Norwegian public and the Norwegian media. King Harald's decision to accept two more commoners into the royal family, Crown Princess Mette-Marit and Ari Behn, has been interpreted as a sign of modernization and adjustment. Under King Harald and Queen Sonja's leadership, comprehensive renovation projects on the Bygdøy Royal Estate, the Royal Palace, the royal stables and Oscarshall have also taken place. The latter three have also been opened to the public and tourists. Together with Queen Sonja, the king has also for decades attempted to establish a palace museum in Oslo.
While the Constitution vests the King with executive power, he is not politically responsible for exercising it. This is in accordance not only with provisions of the Constitution, but with conventions established since the definitive establishment of parliamentary rule in Norway in 1884. His acts are not valid without the countersignature of a member of the Council of State (cabinet)–usually the Prime Minister–and proceedings of the Council of State are signed by all of its members. Although he nominally has the power of veto, no Norwegian king has exercised it since the dissolution of the union with Sweden in 1905. Even then, the King's veto power is suspensive, not absolute as is the case with British monarchs. A royal veto can be overridden if the Storting passes the same bill following a general election.
While the Constitution nominally vests the King with the power to appoint the government, in practice the government must maintain the confidence of Parliament. The King appoints the leader of the parliamentary bloc with the majority as prime minister. When the parliamentary situation is unclear, the King relies on the advice of the President of Parliament and the sitting prime minister. Unlike some monarchs, Harald does not have the power to dissolve Parliament; the Constitution does not allow snap elections.
The King meets with the Council of State at the Royal Palace every Friday. He also has weekly meetings with the Prime Minister and the Minister of Foreign Affairs. He receives foreign envoys, and formally opens parliament every October delivering a speech from the throne during each opening. He travels extensively throughout Norway and makes official state visits to other countries, as well as receiving and hosting guests.
Until 2012, the King of Norway was, according to the constitution, the formal head of the Church of Norway. The constitutional amendment of 21 May 2012 made the King no longer the formal head, but he is still required to be of the Evangelical Lutheran religion.
On 8 May 2018, the King's constitutional status as holy was dissolved, while leaving his sovereign immunity intact.
In 1994, both the King and Crown Prince Haakon played roles during the opening ceremony of the Lillehammer Olympics. The King opened the games, while the Crown Prince lit the cauldron, paying tribute to both the King and his grandfather as Olympians. The King has also represented Norway at opening ceremonies of Olympic Games, among them Torino and Beijing. However, he wasn't present in Vancouver; the Crown Prince attended instead, with the King and Queen attending later in the games.
With his sailing crew he won World Championship bronze, silver and gold medals, in 1988, 1982 and 1987, respectively. In July 2005, the King and his crew aboard the royal sailboat Fram XV won the gold medal at the European Championships in Sweden. In the 2007 World Championship the King came in sixth place.
King Harald V in October 2021 at the opening of Sámi Parliament session of 2021-2022
King Harald's leadership during Norwegian national crises, such as the New Year's Day Storm, the landslide in Gjerdum and particularly the 2011 attacks, has been met with both national and international acclaim.
In 2015, he became the world's first reigning monarch to visit Antarctica, specifically the Norwegian dependency Queen Maud Land. In 2016, King Harald V competed with a team for the sailing World Championships on Lake Ontario, Toronto. The king came second in the classic fleet category. He was dubbed "Sailor-King" by Canada's National Post as he slept on board his yacht "Sira".
In 2016 Harald, in a speech marking 25 years on the throne, sought to unify Norwegians coming from Afghanistan and Pakistan as well as “girls who love girls, boys who love boys and girls and boys who love each other.”
Since the start of the twenty-first century King Harald has been unable to perform his duties as sovereign due to ill health on a few occasions: from December 2003 to mid-April 2004 due to urinary bladder cancer, from April to early June 2005 due to aortic stenosis, and in 2020 he was in hospital for cardiac surgery (replacement of a heart valve). Crown Prince Haakon served as the country's regent on these occasions, including giving the King's Speech at the State opening of parliament in 2020.
When the King and Queen turned 80 years old in 2017, the King decided to open the former royal stables to the public as a gift to his wife, the Queen. The new venue was named The Queen Sonja Art Stable and is the first institution owned by the royal family which is permanently open to the public. King Harald was made Name of the Year by the newspaper VG in 2017.
On 17 January 2021, King Harald celebrated 30 years on the throne of Norway.
- 21 February 1937 – 21 September 1957: His Royal Highness Prince Harald of Norway
- 21 September 1957 – 17 January 1991: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Norway
- Since 17 January 1991: His Majesty The King of Norway
The King is a four-star general, an admiral, and formally the Supreme Commander of the Norwegian Armed Forces. The infantry battalion His Majesty the King's Guard are considered the King's and the Royal Family's bodyguards. They guard the Royal residences, including the Royal Palace, the Crown Prince Residence at Skaugum, and the Royal Mausoleum at Akershus Castle.
The King is Grand Master of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav and the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit.
Norway – Grand Master of the Royal Norwegian Order of St Olav – Grand Cross with collar of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav°
Norway – Grand Master of the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit – Grand Cross°
Norway – St Olav's medal°
Norway – Defence Service Medal with Laurel Branch°
Norway – Royal House Centennial Medal°
Norway – King Haakon VII Commemorative Medal 1. October 1957°
Norway – King Haakon VII 1905–1955 Jubilee Medal°
Norway – Haakon VIIs Centenary Medal°
Norway – Olav Vs Commemorative Medal of 30. January 1991°
Norway – Olav Vs Jubilee Medal°
Norway – Olav Vs Centenary Medal°
Norway – Defence Service Medal with three stars°
Norway – Army National Service Medal with three stars°
Norway – Krigsdeltakerforbundet Badge of Honour°
Norway – Norwegian Red Cross Badge of Honour°
Norway – Norwegian Reserve Officers Federal Badge of Honour°
Norway – The Naval Society Medal of Merit in gold°
Norway – Norwegian Shooting Society Badge of Honour°
Norway – The Norwegian Confederation of Sports Centenary Medal°
Norway – Norwegian Shooting Society Commemorative Medal in gold°
Norway – Oslo Military Society Badge of Honour in Gold°
In the British Army, Harald V was the final Colonel-in-Chief of the Green Howards. He is also an honorary Colonel in the British Royal Marines. He is patron of the Anglo-Norse Society in London, together with Queen Elizabeth II, his second cousin. Harald is in the line of succession to the British throne, because of his descent from King Edward VII of the United Kingdom. He is a Stranger Knight of the Garter, an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, and a Recipient of the Royal Victorian Chain, as well as numerous other orders of chivalry.
Iceland – Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Falcon °
Sweden – Knight with Collar of the Order of the Seraphim °
Sweden – Gustaf Vs 90th Anniversary Medal °
Sweden – HM King Carl XVI Gustaf 50th Anniversary Medal
Denmark – Knight with Collar of the Order of the Elephant °
Denmark – Grand Commander of the Order of the Dannebrog °
Finland – Commander Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the White Rose of Finland °
Estonia – Collar of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana °
Estonia – Collar of the Order of the White Star
Latvia – Commander Grand Cross with Chain of the Order of the Three Stars °
Latvia – Grand Cross of the Order of Viesturs °
Lithuania – Grand Cross (1998) with Golden Chain (2011) of the Order of Vytautas the Great °
United Kingdom – Recipient of the Royal Victorian Chain (1994) °
United Kingdom – Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (1955) °
United Kingdom – Stranger Knight of the Order of the Garter (990th member; 2001) °
United Kingdom – Honorary Freedom of Newcastle upon Tyne (November 2008)
Argentina – Collar of the Order of the Liberator General San Martín
Austria – Grand Star of the Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria (1964) °
Belgium – Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold °
Brazil – Grand Collar of the Order of the Southern Cross °
Bulgaria – Grand Cross of the Order of Stara Planina °
Chile – Collar of the Order of the Merit °
Croatia – Grand Order of King Tomislav °
France – Grand Cross of the Légion d'honneur °
Germany – Grand Cross Special Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany °
Greece – Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer °
Greece – The Royal House of Greece Centenary Medal °
Hungary – Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary °
Olympic flag.svg IOC – The Golden Olympic order °
Italy – Knight Grand Cross (06/1965) with Collar (10/2001) of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic °
Japan – Grand Cordon with Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum °
Jordan – Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of al-Hussein bin Ali °
Yugoslavia – Order of the Yugoslav Great Star °
Luxembourg – Grand Cross of the Order of Adolph of Nassau °
Luxembourg – Knight of the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau°
Luxembourg – Medal to commemorate the wedding of Grand Duke Jean and Grand Duchess Joséphine-Charlotte °
Netherlands – Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion °
Netherlands – Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown °
Netherlands – Commander of the Order of the Golden Ark °
Netherlands – Medal to commemorate the enthronement of Queen Beatrix °
Poland – Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the White Eagle °
Portugal – Grand Cross of the Military Order of Aviz (05/11/1980) °
Portugal – Grand Collar of the Order of Infante Dom Henrique (13 February 2004) °
Portugal – Grand Collar of the Order of St. James of the Sword (26 May 2008) °
Romania – Sash Rank of the Order of the Star of Romania °
Slovakia – Grand Cross (or 1st Class) of the Order of the White Double Cross (2010) °
Slovenia: Recipient of the Decoration for Exceptional Merits (2011) °
Spain – 1,192nd Knight and Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece (21 April 1995) °
Spain – Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III (12/04/1982) °
Spain – Collar of the Order of Charles III (30 June 2006) °
South Africa – Grand Cross of the Order of Good Hope °
South Korea – Recipient of the Grand Order of Mugunghwa °
Thailand – Knight of the Order of the Royal House of Chakri (19 September 1960)°
Thailand – Knight Grand Cordon (Special Class) of the Order of Chula Chom Klao °
Turkey – First Class of the Order of the State of Republic of Turkey °
The mark ° shows honours mentioned on his official website page about decorations
Harald V received an honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law from Oxford University in 2006 (as did his father, King Olav, in 1937, and his grandfather, King Haakon, in 1943). The King also received honorary doctorates from Heriot-Watt University in Scotland in 1994, the University of Strathclyde in Scotland in 1985, Waseda University in Japan in 2001, and Pacific Lutheran University in Tacoma, Washington, in 2015. He is also an honorary fellow at Balliol College, Oxford.
- Ireland – Freedom of the City of Cork.
- Spirit of Luther Award, awarded by Luther College of Decorah, IA
- A 230,000 km2 area in Antarctica is named Prince Harald Coast in his honour.
- In 2007 King Harald was awarded the Holmenkollen medal with Simon Ammann, Frode Estil, Odd-Bjørn Hjelmeset, and his wife Queen Sonja.
- Portugal – Key of Honor to the City of Lisbon, on 28 May 2008
- In 2013, a 6,500 km2 area in Svalbard was named Harald V Land.
King Harald is closely related to other European monarchs. He is the first cousin once removed of King Philippe of Belgium and Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg, the second cousin of Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, Queen Anne-Marie of Greece (double second cousins and double third cousins) and Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, and the second cousin once removed of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.
- Coronation requirement discarded by constitutional amendment in 1908. Harald V swore the Royal Oath in the Storting on 21 January 1991 and received the benediction in the Nidaros Cathedral on 23 June 1991.
- "The Royal Family". Retrieved 25 October 2014.
- Berulfsen, Bjarne (1969). Norsk Uttaleordbok (in Norwegian). Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co (W Nygaard). pp. 64, 91, 129.
- Hegge, Per Egil; Harald V, En biografi; N.W. Damm & Søn AS; 2006.
- "Kidnapper Foiled?". Time. 2 September 1940. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
- "Non-Political Campaign". Time Magazine. 9 September 1940. p. 2. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
- "Those Apprentice Kings and Queens Who May – One Day – Ascend a Throne," New York Times. 14 November 1971.
- "Crown Princess Märtha (1901-1954)". Norwegian Royal House. Archived from the original on 16 June 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
- "Victory by Design". Time Magazine. 27 September 1963. p. 1. Archived from the original on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
- "HP-Time.com". Time Magazine. 26 June 1964. p. 2. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
- "The Consecration of King Harald and Queen Sonja". www.kongehuset.no (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- NRK. "– Å si at vi ikke er åpne, er rett og slett feil". NRK (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- "Stanghelle: "Kong Harald står frem som mannen som forstår sin egen tid"". Aftenposten. Archived from the original on 29 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- "The Royal Palace is open to the public". www.royalcourt.no. Archived from the original on 29 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- Totl, Kjell Arne. "Kongehusekspert Kjell Arne Totland skriver: Gi kongeparet et permanent slottsmuseum". Aftenposten (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 27 December 2018.[permanent dead link]
- Moxnes, Agnes (27 December 2018). "På tide med et slottsmuseum". NRK (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 27 December 2018.
- NTB 2018. 'Fra tirsdag er ikke kongen lenger hellig'. NRK, 7 May. Retrieved on 8 May. https://www.nrk.no/norge/fra-tirsdag-er-ikke-kongen-lenger-hellig-1.14039929
- Sandefjords Blad on the King's performance in the World Championship (in Norwegian) Retrieved 10 September 2007.[dead link]
- Erlanger, Steven (15 October 2011). "King Harald of Norway Proves Mettle With Response to July 22 Deaths". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- Rising, Malin (21 August 2011). "Norway remembers 77 killed in massacre". MSNBC. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- "Kongen om terrorangrepet: - Våre tanker går til ofrene". VG (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- Nyfløt, Hilda (21 August 2011). "- Hans aller beste tale". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- "King Harald visits Antarctic namesake". The Local. 11 February 2015. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "Sun shines for king in Antarctica". newsinenglish.no. 11 February 2015. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "King Harald begins Antarctic visit". The Norway Post. NRK/Aftenposten. 11 February 2015. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "King Harald of Norway in Canada to participate in sailing World Championships – Royal Central". royalcentral.co.uk. Archived from the original on 29 May 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
- "North American Eight Metre Association" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2017.
- "Norway's sailor king: Why Harald V has been sleeping on a yacht moored on Toronto's waterfront". National Post. Retrieved 30 May 2017.[dead link]
- "The king's speech struck a chord".
- "The Art Stable is open". www.royalcourt.no. Archived from the original on 29 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- "Kongebiograf: Kong Harald blir mer populær jo eldre han blir" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 21 February 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
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- "No. 52834". The London Gazette (Supplement). 14 February 1992. p. 2582.
- "No. 48634". The London Gazette (Supplement). 9 June 1981. p. 7795.
- Lithuanian Presidency Archived 19 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Lithuanian Orders searching form
- "King of Norway awarded Honorary Freedom of Newcastle". Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 12 February 2009. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
- Solholm, Rolleiv (14 November 2008). "King Harald receives honorary title". Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. Norway Post. Retrieved 14 November 2008.[dead link]
- "Reply to a parliamentary question" (PDF) (in German). p. 170. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
- Italian Presidency website, decorations – Harald V : Grand Cross – Collar
- Portuguese presidential website, Orders search form
- Slovak republic website, State honours Archived 13 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine : 1st Class received in 2010 (click on "Holders of the Order of the 1st Class White Double Cross" to see the holders' table)
- Boletín Oficial del Estado
- "Boletín Oficial del Estado" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 January 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- Boletín Oficial del Estado
- Royal Thai Government Gazette (28 December 1960). แจ้งความสำนักนายกรัฐมนตรี เรื่อง พระราชทานเครื่องราชอิสริยาภรณ์ (PDF) (in Thai). Retrieved 8 May 2019.
- Article in VG on the honorary doctorate (in Norwegian)
- firstname.lastname@example.org. "Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh: Honorary Graduates". www1.hw.ac.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- "State Visit continues". The Royal House of Norway. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
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