Captain America, comic-strip superhero created by writer Joe Simon and artist Jack Kirby for Timely (later Marvel) Comics. The character debuted in March 1941 in Captain America Comics no. 1.
Origins in the Golden Age
Simon and Kirby created Steve Rogers, a would-be army enlistee rejected by recruiters because of his small size. Rogers volunteers to receive a top-secret serum, and he is transformed into a “super soldier.” Dubbed Captain America and clad in a red, white, and blue costume with a matching stars-and-stripes shield, Rogers joins the U.S. Army, acquires a kid sidekick—plucky regimental mascot Bucky Barnes—and embarks on a career of enthusiastic Nazi-bashing.
The early stories were simple, straightforward tales peopled with bizarre villains such as the Hunchback of Hollywood, the Black Toad, and Ivan the Terrible. Chief among them was the Red Skull, a seemingly invincible Nazi whose face literally was a crimson skull. The stories of derring-do were gripping and fast-moving, and the comic became one of the most widely read titles of the so-called Golden Age of comics. Audience identification with Captain America was central to that success. The first issue announced the creation of “The Sentinels of Liberty” fan club; eager young readers could join for just a dime, which entitled them to a membership card and a metal badge. The club proved so popular that its badge promotion had to be discontinued because of wartime metal rationing.
By the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor, in December 1941, Captain America Comics had become the publisher’s top-selling title, and, over the course of World War II, Captain America and Bucky fought the Axis powers on multiple fronts. After 10 successful issues, the comic’s creators were enticed away to rival company DC Comics, but their replacements—novice writer-editor Stan Lee and various artists—handled things well. In 1944 the character received the honour of his own Republic Pictures serial, Captain America, which was confirmation of his iconic status. As the war wound down, the market for patriotic superheroes began to shrink, and Captain America and Bucky were literally put on ice. In a story set in the final days of the war, the pair attempt to defuse a bomb on a drone aircraft, but the plane explodes over the frigid North Atlantic, sparking a complicated chain of events that ends with Bucky missing and Rogers floating in the water, seemingly dead.
The postwar years saw a proliferation of differently themed comics: horror, funny animals, westerns, romance stories—everything, it seemed, except superheroes. With the disappearance of Rogers, the mantle of Captain America passed to a succession of replacement heroes, but they failed to resonate with the stalwart Sentinels of Liberty club members. Captain America Comics ended with issue no. 73 (July 1949), and, after two issues titled Captain America’s Weird Tales, the series was canceled. Barely four years later, however, Captain America returned in Young Men no. 24 (1953), and the Captain America comic resumed printing in May 1954. The book, which boasted Captain America…Commie Smasher! as a subtitle, was an obvious product of the McCarthy era. The public did not warm to it. The Captain America series was canceled for a second time in September 1954.
Rebirth in the Silver Age
In the early 1960s, with Marvel’s superheroes rediscovering a large and enthusiastic audience, the time seemed right to reintroduce Captain America. In Avengers no. 4 (1964), it was revealed that Steve Rogers had not died in the freezing waters of the North Atlantic. He had been trapped in ice and preserved in a state of suspended animation. The newly formed Avengers find Rogers’s thawing body and revive him. Captain America immediately joins the Avengers and becomes something of an elder statesman among them. Within a year of his revival, he graduated to his own strip in Tales of Suspense, a title he shared with Iron Man, and was well on his way to becoming an icon again.
Despite Kirby’s return, the new Captain America failed to achieve the popularity of Marvel’s powerhouse headliners, such as Spider-Man and the Fantastic Four. As an admission that the strip was at its peak during World War II, this revival almost immediately resorted to “untold tales” of the war. The character was nevertheless a cornerstone of the “Marvel Universe” in the 1960s, and, with Lee and Kirby at the peak of their powers, the stories were a compelling read.
The modern era
By the early 1970s Lee and Kirby had left the comic and sales were in decline when young writer Steve Englehart took Captain America into deeper, darker waters. In a lengthy tale that reflects both antiwar sentiment and cynicism born of the Watergate scandal, a conspiracy within the White House is revealed to be the work of the evil “Secret Empire,” and the government’s insidious corruption horrifies Captain America. Sickened at what he sees as the betrayal of his country, Rogers quits in disgust and briefly becomes a character called Nomad before his innate patriotism gets the better of him.
Kirby returned to Captain America as both writer and artist in 1975, and he moved the title away from the social commentary that was typical of Engelhart’s take on the character. A series of writers shepherded Captain America into the 1980s, and in 1985 Mark Gruenwald began a decadelong tenure on the book. Gruenwald’s run focused on superheroics at the expense of Rogers’s civilian persona, and it introduced Diamondback—a sometime villain who evoked shades of Catwoman—as a romantic interest.
Mark Waid took over as writer in 1995, and he refocused on the basics of the character: while Steve Rogers might be a “man out of time,” Captain America is a symbol for all times. Waid’s brief but influential run paved the way for the virtual reinvention of the character in 2005, when Ed Brubaker began his critically acclaimed stint as the writer of Captain America. While not shying away from comic conventions such as time travel, Brubaker’s Captain America was a soldier, and his adventures were noir-influenced tales of intrigue and espionage. Brubaker deftly reversed one of the most famous deaths in comics history with a story revealing that although Bucky lost an arm in the explosion at the war’s end, he survived, and his unconscious body was recovered by the Soviets. They replaced his missing arm with a bionic one and brainwashed him into becoming an assassin called the Winter Soldier. Between missions he was kept in suspended animation, and thus Bucky, though now an adult, was still in his early 20s. Upon the apparent death of Steve Rogers in 2007, Bucky assumed the role of Captain America, a mantle that he carried until his own apparent death in 2011. At that time Rogers once again became Captain America and Bucky resumed his clandestine operations—now as Captain America’s ally—as the Winter Soldier.
Under writer Rick Remender, Rogers passed the mantle of Captain America again in 2014, when Captain America’s body was subjected to rapid aging because of the diminishing effects of the super soldier serum that granted him his powers. Sam Wilson, who had long fought by Rogers’s side as the Falcon, became the new Captain America in All-New Captain America no. 1 (November 2014). Marvel was unlikely to leave one of its flagship characters on the sidelines for long, however, and a de-aged, repowered Rogers returned in Captain America: Steve Rogers in 2016. That title set the stage for writer Nick Spencer’s Secret Empire (2017), a crossover event that declared that Rogers was and had always been a sleeper agent for the fascist secret society Hydra. At a time when white supremacist and neofascist rhetoric was increasingly prevalent in the United States, comic fans had little interest in a story that reimagined Captain America as a Nazi. Despite the publicity generated by the critically reviled story, Secret Empire was one of the worst-selling crossover titles in Marvel history.
In addition to appearing in comics, Captain America was featured in numerous animated television series and an assortment of video games. Director Joe Johnston’s Captain America: The First Avenger (2011) marked the character’s first appearance on the big screen in almost 70 years. Chris Evans played the star-spangled hero in a film that expanded on Marvel’s cinematic universe in a manner that delighted both comics fans and critics. Evans returned as Captain America in The Avengers (2012), Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014), Captain America: Civil War (2016), Avengers: Infinity War (2018), and Avengers: Endgame (2019). The made-for-television miniseries The Falcon and the Winter Soldier (2021) saw the mantle of Captain America passed to Sam Wilson (played by Anthony Mackie).