Environmental monitoring is a form of environmental management consisting of the characterization and monitoring of environmental quality. Environmental monitoring is often used to gain insight into changing environmental conditions related to human activities which may produce harmful and/or beneficial effects for both human and non-human ecosystems. Environmental monitoring consists of systematically sampling air, water, soil, and biota for obtaining knowledge and deriving new knowledge about environmental conditions. All forms of environmental monitoring consist of strategies and infrastructure for establishing the status of environmental conditions and projecting how these circumstances may change based on future projections of activities influencing the environment.
Examples of environmental monitoring services include, but are not limited to: biophysical environmental assessments, bird nest surveys, contaminant remediation, contaminant remediation engineering, detailed site investigations, electrofishing, environmental impact assessments, environmental management plans, environmental site assessments, emergency spill response, erosion sediment control engineering, federal fuel system compliance and engineering, habitat restoration, invasive species management, national pollution release inventory, permit approvals, riparian regulation assessments, risk assessments for ecological and human health, storm water engineering, and wastewater engineering.