Etymology of the word pear
The word "pear" in Russian written sources has been found since the XII century in the form of a crunch. In the XVII century, instead of "pear", the word "dulya" was used, borrowed from the Polish language (Polish. dula).
An ordinary pear. Botanical illustration from the book by O. V. Tome Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz, 1885
The shape of the crown of a free-growing tree is pyramidal or rounded, prone to thickening. The annual increase is 30-40 cm . Under favorable conditions, the pear reaches large sizes - up to 5-25 meters in height and 5 meters in diameter of the crown.
The leaves are usually falling off. The leaf arrangement is spiral in 5 rows. The leaf is broadly ovate, 2.5-10 cm long, short-pointed; the color is dark green, shiny, the underside of the leaf is bluish-green, golden-orange in autumn.
The buds of the pear, like those of other trees in the family, are of two types: vegetative and generative. Vegetative buds are smaller and sharper, generative buds are larger and dumber. The external differences between the two types of kidneys increase from the time of formation of these kidneys to the exit of shoots from them.
Time and form of flowering: April-May, white flowers, 3 cm in diameter, 5-petal, 3-9 in umbellate racemes. The pistils in the guinea are from 2 to 5. Their ovaries fuse together and with the flower, taking the form of a circle; the petals in the bud are arranged tiled.
The type of fruit is an apple; its nests are lined with a dense shell (intraplot).
The fruit, as a rule— is elongated with an extension in the lower part, there are varieties with spherical fruits. The fruits of pears are characterized by a characteristic granular pulp due to the presence of stony cells (sclereids).
Distribution and ecology
In its wild form in Europe, the pear is distributed up to about 60 ° C. It is rare on the northern border of its range.
By 2006, as a result of successful breeding of frost-resistant varieties, pears are effectively grown in garden plots located in the Urals and Western Siberia up to 55 ° C. w.
In the Far East of Russia, northeast China and Korea, a very cold-resistant pear species grows — the Ussuri pear.
It is assumed that the origin of cultivated varieties of pears is associated with the hybridization of a number of species, in particular Pyrus achras Gärtn., Pyrus persica Pers., Pyrus cordata Desv., Pyrus elaeagnifolia Pall.. Pears were cultivated in ancient Persia, Greece and the Roman Empire.
Currently, there are thousands of varieties of pears.
History of origin
The pear came to us from the prehistoric era. Her homeland is not exactly established. The cultivated pear apparently originates from Ancient Greece (1000 BC).
According to one source, the homeland is Central Europe and Central Asia. The remains of wild forest pears are found in Swiss pile buildings.
The first mention of pears can be found in Homer in The Odyssey (canto XXIV). The Romans knew 38 varieties, but, according to Pliny the Elder, many of them were not very tasty, they were eaten by the poor. During the early Middle Ages, the number of varieties already reached 300. In Germany, pears that were more than 50 years old were considered sacred. The preachers of Christianity caused significant harm to the spread of pear trees, seeing in them traces of pagan cult
Meaning and application
Illustration of the pear variety "Maria Luisa", 1921
Different varieties of pears are used as ornamental or actually fruit trees.
In Switzerland, a product called "pear honey" is obtained from pear fruits.
In 2005, the world production of pears amounted to 15 million tons (estimated by the US Department of Agriculture). The largest producer of pears is China.
Due to the presence of stony cells, the use of pear fruit pulp in any form is undesirable in some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular with pancreatitis.
(Nutritional value of 100 g)
Water: 83.71 g Inorganic substances: 0.33 g Dietary fiber: 3.1 g Energy value: 58 kcal
Monosaccharides: 9.80 g Carbohydrates: 15.46 g Proteins: 0.38 g Fats: 0.12 g
Potassium: 119 mg Phosphorus: 11 mg Calcium: 9 mg Magnesium: 7 mg
Sodium: 1 mg Iron: 170 mcg Copper: 82 mcg Zinc: 100 mcg
Vitamin C: 4.2 mg Vitamin B1: 12 mcg Vitamin B2: 25 mcg Vitamin B3: 157 mcg
Vitamin B5: 48 mcg Vitamin B6: 28 mcg Vitamin B9: 0 mcg Vitamin B12: 0 mcg
Vitamin A: 23 UI Retinol: 0 mcg Vitamin E: 0.12 mcg Vitamin K: 4.5 mcg
Saturated: 6 mg Mono-unsaturated: 26 mg Poly-unsaturated: 29 mg Cholesterol: 0 mg
Hard, heavy and resilient pear wood is widely used for small crafts. Due to its low resistance to rot, it is used only for products that are used indoors. The specific density of this wood is approximately 740 kg/m3. Like any other heavy and dense wood, when dried, the pear is prone to cracking and warps strongly, as well as beech wood with the same density. In the dried state, this wood is very form-resistant. This resistance is associated with the presence of "stone cells" that distinguish the pear both as a fruit and as wood. These cells are, as it were, woven into the structure of the wood.
The specific heat capacity of burning pear wood is slightly lower than that of beech wood, although these species are very similar in density.
The texture of pear wood is very thin, uniform, with barely discernible annual rings. Around the damage of a living tree, the wood can change color, taking colors from purple-brown to black-brown. Hot steam treatment, for example in the manufacture of veneer, changes its color to reddish and darker. With aging, this wood acquires a very beautiful dark brown amber color, which is its distinctive feature. The pores are visible to the naked eye only on a cross-section.
Despite its hardness, the pear is suitable for cutting, thanks to the "stone cells" it can be cut without splitting in different directions. In Germany, this wood has long been used in the manufacture of various printed boards for molding special types of cookies, called "Springerle" (German Springerle).
In Russia, carved boards have long been made from pear wood, used in the production of printed gingerbread as a relief base [source not specified 2005 days].
After treatment with black stain, this wood is also used as a substitute for very expensive ebony