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Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke

English natural philosopher, architect and polymath

Robert Hooke FRS (/hʊk/; 18 July 1635 – 3 March 1703) was an English polymath active as a scientist and architect, who, using a microscope, was the first to visualize a micro-organism. An impoverished scientific inquirer in young adulthood, he found wealth and esteem by performing over half of the architectural surveys after London's great fire of 1666. Hooke was also a member of the Royal Society and since 1662 was its curator of experiments. Hooke was also Professor of Geometry at Gresham College.

As an assistant to physical scientist Robert Boyle, Hooke built the vacuum pumps used in Boyle's experiments on gas law, and himself conducted experiments. In 1673, Hooke built the earliest Gregorian telescope, and then he observed the rotations of the planets Mars and Jupiter. Hooke's 1665 book Micrographia spurred microscopic investigations. Investigating in optics, specifically light refraction, he inferred a wave theory of light. And his is the first recorded hypothesis of heat expanding matter, air's composition by small particles at larger distances, and heat as energy.

In physics, he approximated experimental confirmation that gravity heeds an inverse square law, and first hypothesised such a relation in planetary motion, too, a principle furthered and formalised by Isaac Newton in Newton's law of universal gravitation. Priority over this insight contributed to the rivalry between Hooke and Newton, who thus antagonized Hooke's legacy. In geology and paleontology, Hooke originated the theory of a terraqueous globe, disputed the literally Biblical view of the Earth's age, hypothesised the extinction of species, and argued that fossils atop hills and mountains had become elevated by geological processes. Thus observing microscopic fossils, Hooke presaged the theory of biological evolution. Hooke's pioneering work in land surveying and in mapmaking aided development of the first modern plan-form map, although his grid-system plan for London was rejected in favour of rebuilding along existing routes. Even so, Hooke was key in devising for London a set of planning controls that remain influential. In recent times, he has been called "England's Leonardo".


July 18, 1635
Robert Hooke was born in Freshwater.


Further reading


Микрография - Google Search


Documentaries, videos and podcasts



Christopher Intagliata
May 26, 2021
Scientific American
A daily quick take on science.
Jennifer Ouellette
May 16, 2021
Ars Technica
His most powerful microscope holds a lens likely made with Robert Hooke's 1678 recipe
January 29, 2021
Authors Arthur Ziffer and Herbert Hauptman helm a profound six scene, one-act play, "On The Shoulders of Giants" are about famous scientists and mathematicians Sir Isaac Newton, Robert Hooke, and others sparked conflicts during his time as England's Master of Mint, , , , The source is based on correspondence to Robert Hooke in the year 1675, Sir Isaac Newton made this well-known quote: "If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants." The statement has now become a term...
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