Peter I Alekseevich, nicknamed the Great (May 30 [June 9], 1672 - January 28 [February 8], 1725) - the last Tsar of All Russia (since 1682) and the first All-Russian Emperor (since 1721).
Representative of the Romanov dynasty. He was proclaimed king at the age of 10, began to rule independently from 1689. The formal co-ruler of Peter was his brother Ivan (until his death in 1696).
From a young age, showing interest in the sciences and a foreign way of life, Peter was the first of the Russian tsars to make a long journey to the countries of Western Europe. Upon returning from it, in 1698, Peter launched large-scale reforms of the Russian state and social order. One of Peter's merits was the expansion of Russian territories in the Baltic region after the victory in the Great Northern War, which allowed him to take the title of Russian emperor in 1721.
In historical science and in public opinion from the end of the 18th century to the present, there are diametrically opposed assessments of both the personality of Peter I and his role in the history of Russia. In the official Russian historiography, Peter was considered to be one of the most prominent statesmen who determined the direction of Russia's development in the 18th century. However, many historians, including Nikolai Karamzin, Vasily Klyuchevsky, Pavel Milyukov and others, expressed sharply critical assessments.
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